IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 77

Power (kW)

Discharge to Provide PFR

5,000

100

3,000

60

2,000

Post-PFR Charging 40

1,000

20

0
-1,000
6:04 p.m.

Power (kW)

80

4,000

SoC (%)

Power (kW)

SoC (%)

80

2,000

60

0

40

-2,000

20

-200

80

12,850

2,000

60

12,800

1,000

40

-400

20
591-kW Charge to Maintain SoC

-800
3:55 p.m.

0
6:00 p.m.

Voltage (V)

155-kW Demand Response

Time of Day
(b)

0
8:36 a.m.

Measured Voltage (V)
Voltage Set Point (V)
Reactive Power (kVar)

100

0

-600

4,000

SoC (%)

SoC (%)

Power (kW)

200

100

-6,000
8:08 a.m.

Time of Day
(a)
Power (kW)

6,000

-4,000

0
6:24 p.m.

400

SoC (%)

12,750

0

12,700

(kVar)

Power (kW)
6,000

A few snapshots of ESS operation under individual
use cases are displayed in Figure 9. Primary frequency
response (PFR), which replicates a generator's governor
response by responding to a reduction in system frequency, is the utility's highest-value use case. The power
profile produced by SSPC during a PFR operation is presented in Figure 9(a); it is essentially a step discharge of
the battery at 4.7 MW for roughly 3 min before ramping
down the discharge power to zero. A post-PFR charging is accomplished by the main coordination loop (see
Figure 5) to maintain a desired SoC. Regulation service
requires an ESS to follow a set of charge/discharge commands at intervals of a few seconds (e.g., 4 s in CAISO).

SoC (%)

with the utility system operation platform, operational
data from the site could provide useful information in
analyzing the performance of the ESS under various use
cases. Potential applications of the ESS while operating under the jurisdiction of the utility system operation platform would be similar (with a few exceptions
related to local operation) to the use cases considered for
the local asset benefit maximization goal. Therefore, the
data and lessons learned from the local asset operation
perspective could be used to assess how the ESS would
perform while engaged by the EMS and would provide
useful information for the modeling of and integration
with this platform.

-1,000

12,650

-2,000
3:15 p.m.

12,600
2:45 p.m.

Time of Day
(c)

Time of Day
(d)

Power (kW)

6,000
PFR
Function
Triggered

4,000
2,000

ESS Resumes Regulation

0
-2,000

ESS Providing Regulation

-4,000
1:46 p.m.

Regulation

Time of Day
(e)

PFR
1:56 p.m.

figure 9. The SSPC performing use-case operations individually and bundled.
march/april 2020	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

77



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
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