IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 80

The selection of an appropriate platform
for implement-ing control strategies depends on
multiple aspects and var-ies case by case.
operation time, and the conditions that cause transition
among use cases or interruption) is very useful for generating such rules. As more data and knowledge are gathered
on a particular ESS project, the rules could be refined for
more optimal performance or the deployment of optimization engines could be considered.
The selection of an appropriate platform for implementing control strategies depends on multiple aspects and varies case by case. However, considering the tradeoffs associated with the technical features, computational capabilities,
simplicity of use, and options for future expansion would
provide useful guidance when selecting the appropriate platform. For this project, the utility chose to build the control
system from scratch using a PLC-based controller for various strategic reasons, including developing in-house expertise, reducing dependency on external resources, and easier
modification, expansion, and scalability.
The inclusion of certain features with the control system could make it easier to understand ESS operation
under multiple use cases and to generate information
for the expansion of control capabilities. SSPC includes
visual aids (an animated and colored flowchart) for following the operation of the ESS under various use cases,
a daily operation summary chart to gain better insight on
daily operation, and an economic value tracking feature
to provide a real-time visual indication of the economic
values being generated.
In many cases, an ESS would ultimately be integrated
with the central day-to-day operation platform of a utility.
The ESS would then be a part of the utility's portfolio of
assets and would be scheduled and dispatched to minimize
the global system operation cost. Integration with a system
operation platform involves the modeling of the ESS using
the resource modeling tool used by the utility. Typically,
these tools need information on operational costs and technical constraints, which is difficult to generate without prior
operating data for a given ESS. The operation of the ESS
under a local asset benefit maximization could provide useful data in this regard.
Participating in electricity markets, for instance, the
Western EIM for the case of PGE, introduces additional layers of complexity into the ESS control functions. In addition to the scheduling of the ESS along with other assets
across its system to address local system needs, additional
coordination would be required through the design of daily
bids and the integration of market instructions into daily dispatch. The benefits of EIM participation should be weighed
80	

ieee power & energy magazine	

against local system needs while establishing control protocols and market-bidding strategies.

Acknowledgment
The research work conducted by Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory for this project is funded by the Energy Storage
Program under the Office of Electricity, the U.S. Department of Energy.

For Further Reading
P. J. Balducci et al., "The Salem Smart Power Center: An assessment of battery performance and economic potential," Pacific
Northwest Nat. Lab., Richland, WA, Rep. PNNL-26858, 2017.
D. Wu, C. Jin, P. J. Balducci, and M. C. Kintner-Meyer,
"An energy storage assessment: using optimal control strategies to capture multiple services," in Proc. IEEE Power &
Energy Society General Meeting, Denver, CO, July 26-30,
2015, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/PESGM.2015.7285820.
California ISO, "Standards for imports of regulation."
Accessed on: Nov. 11, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://
www.caiso.com / Documents/ ISOStanda rds_Impor ts
-Regulation.pdf
D. Manz, R. Piwko, and N. Miller, "Look before you leap:
The role of energy storage in the grid," IEEE Power Energy
Mag., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 75-84, July/Aug. 2018. doi: 10.1109/
MPE.2012.2196337.
J. Araiza, Jr., J. Hambrick, J. Moon, M. Starke, and C.
Vartanian, "Grid energy-storage projects: Engineers building and using knowledge in emerging projects," IEEE Electrific. Mag., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 14-19, Sept. 2018. doi: 10.1109/
MELE.2018.2849842.
E. Namor, F. Sossan, R. Cherkaoui, and M. Paolone,
"Control of battery storage systems for the simultaneous
provision of multiple services," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid,
vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 2799-2808, May 2019. doi: 10.1109/
TSG.2018.2810781.

Biographies
Jan Alam is with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Richland, Washington.
Patrick Balducci is with Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory, Portland, Oregon.
Kevin Whitener is with Portland General Electric, Portland, Oregon.
Steve Cox is with Nikos Inc., Vancouver, Washington.


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https://www.caiso.com/Documents/ISOStandards_Imports-Regulation.pdf https://www.caiso.com/Documents/ISOStandards_Imports-Regulation.pdf https://www.caiso.com/Documents/ISOStandards_Imports-Regulation.pdf

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