IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 93

to increased conductor material and labor costs as well as the need for stronger
structures (e.g., use of a two-Cardinal
bundle doubles the conductor tension
loads on strain structures).
As to the proven reliability of HT
conductors, ACSSs are stranded with
annealed aluminum wire layers instead
of full-hard aluminum wires and have
been commercially available for approximately 50 years. Their use has
grown over that time, although they have
been used mostly for uprating existing lines. ACSS
compression connectors are
similar to normal two-stage
connectors for ACSRs but
are slightly longer. While
the tension in the annealed
aluminum layers of ACSSs
is quite low after installation,
there is no evidence that the
corona is different than that of
ACSRs with the same OD.
Other HT conductors are described in the technical literature. Various HT conductor
types and their acronyms
are defined in CIGRE Technical Brochure 763. ACCC
(polymer-core), ACCR (metal-matrix core), (Z)TACSR
(zirconium aluminum), and
G(Z)TACSR (gap-type) conductors all consist of aluminum wires (annealed or zirconium alloy) over a steel, steel
alloy, or composite core, and
any can be used in new lines,
but the cost is typically higher
than that of ACSSs. Their use
may make sense in certain
compact or environmentally
sensitive line designs. Similarly, ACSSs are available with
trapezoidal aluminum wires
with much higher strength
steel cores (HS285) with mischmetal coating to enable operation at temperatures as high
as 250  °C. All these HT options should be considered in
a detailed line design analysis.
Although a detailed line
design is beyond the scope of

this column, a simplified analysis regarding the impact of replacing ACSRs
with ACSSs of the same OD on project
cost is instructive. Compare the main
project costs for a new line using Cardinal ACSRs to those using Cardinal
ACSSs. In this case, the aluminum and
steel strand sizes, OD, and steel-core diameter are the same for the two conductors, and the compression connectors for
Cardinal ACSSs can also be used with
the ACSRs. The difference between the

two is simply that the aluminum wires
in the ACSSs have been fully annealed
and maintain their electrical and mechanical properties at temperatures as
high as 250  °C. The steel-core strands
in ACSSs have a higher tensile strength
than those in ACSRs but are limited to
200  °C since they are conventionally
galvanized. The impacts upon line design are as follows:
✔ The resistance of the Cardinal
ACSS is about 3% less than that

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

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