IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 94

for the Cardinal ACSR (annealed
aluminum conductivity is lower
than that of full-hard aluminum).
✔ The weight per unit length is
the same.

3,000

✔ The maximum conductor ten-

sag of the ACSS at 200 °C is about
5 ft more than the sag of ACSR at
100 °C in the same 1,000-ft span
(e.g., 40 versus 35 ft).

sion of the ACSS is slightly less
than that of the ACSR for the
same ice/wind loading.
✔ The cost of the ACSS Cardinal
per pound is typically 10-20%
more than that of the Cardinal
the ACSR.
If the total new line project cost (material and labor) breaks down as 30%
for conductors and 50% for structures
(see CIGRE Technical Brochure 638),
then the increase in cost due to the use
of the ACSS is approximately 2-3% for
conductor material and 5-10% for structures. The increase in total project cost
is less than 10%, and the increase in line
thermal rating is 50%. The cost of electrical losses is essentially unchanged-3%
less for the ACSS than for the ACSR.

Thermal Rating Versus TCMAX (35 °C Air, 0.91 m/s Wind, Full Sun)
Two-Cardinal ACSR:
483 mm2 (994 kcmil)

2,500
Thermal Rating (A)

✔ For the same installed tension, the

Falcon ACSR:
806 mm2 (1,590 kcmil)

2,000

Cardinal ACSR,
ACSS: 483 mm2 (954 kcmil)

1,500
1,000

HT Conductor

500
0
50

75

100

125

150
175
TCMAX (°C)

200

225

250

figure 2. Thermal rating versus TCMAX for three-phase conductor bundles of different
sizes with the smallest single-phase conductor at a range of maximum temperatures.
ai157927777218_IEEE 2.pdf

1

17/01/2020

16:16

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ever-changing world
MSc Electrical Power Systems Engineering

Summary
The design of new overhead transmission lines should consider HT phase
conductors since they can produce a 50%
increase in thermal line rating at an additional project cost of less than 10%.
Electrical losses in the line using either
ACSRs or ACSSs are difficult to predict
over the life of the line, but both conductors would produce the same energy
losses. Compression connectors for
ACSSs are essentially the same as those
for ACSRs and can be used with either
type of conductor.
The key advantage to using an HT
conductor is avoidance of potential future power-flow constraints when related to the line thermal rating. This added
robustness is available for a very modest
additional investment.

For Further Reading
Develop and build your career in the rapidly evolving power
systems industry. Study part-time and completely online.
Join our next intake in September 2020.
studyonline@manchester.ac.uk
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manchester.ac.uk/powersystems

R. Gutman et al., "Analytical development
of loadability characteristics for EHV and
UHV transmission lines," IEEE Trans.
Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-98, no. 2, pp.
606-617, Mar./Apr. 1979.
"Conductors for the uprating of existing overhead lines," CIGRE, Paris,
Technical Brochure 763, 2019.
"Guide to overa ll line design,"
CIGRE, Paris, Technical Brochure
638, 2015.
p&e


http://manchester.ac.uk/powersystems

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

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