IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2014 - 100

table 1. Targets of the reliability process.
Reliability Process

Target

Outage management

Reduction of fault time

Waste management

Equipment lifetime management

Network security management

Crisis management

Management of planning, design, and execution

Management of new equipment and projects

table 2. Postoutage activities.

table 3. Resource efficiency improvement activities.

Postoutage Activity

Required Infrastructures

Activity

Type of Resource

Separating fault

Establishing maneuver points

Loss reduction

Energy generation

Providing power for
maximum number of
customers

Establishing maneuver points

Improvement of load factor,
power factor, utilization factor,
energy not supplied

Equipment production

Fault elimination

Human management

Human management

Human

Returning the network to its
previous condition

continuity and reliability. The advantage of this classification is that it leads to finding and executing
solutions and improvement projects when it is necessary to change or promote reliability indicators.
figure 3 displays this classification. The main targets of
the continuity or reliability process are summarized in Table 1.
Outage Management

in this section, we consider those distribution activities that
must be conducted after outages. such activities require
infrastructures to be established and fortified before the outages occur. postoutage activities can be divided into four
main groups, as listed in Table 2. in all stages, managerial
tactics and techniques must be used to reduce final duration.
figure 3 shows outage management subsections.

aimed at controlling the number of outages. such activities
can be divided into two classes: network load control and
network physical control. network load control consists of
equipment load management in medium-voltage distribution lines and low-voltage substations; planning of connections to subtransmission systems, including requests for new
medium-voltage feeders or new subtransmission substations;
and management of equipment security against load oscillation. network physical control can be similarly divided into
two classes: preventive maintenance repairs and worn-out
network improvement. These factors lead to the improvement of equipment lifetime management. figure 3 shows the
factors and processes important for this kind of management.
Network Security Management

The factors resulting in crisis and security violation can be divided
into separate groups. in this article, the crisis that results from netwaste management concerns those activities of distribution work security violations is considered as either crisis leading to
companies that must be conducted before outages and are outages (technical instability) or crisis that violates the economic
stability of distribution enterprises
needed in order to operate distribuEquipment Production's
tion networks correctly. Thus, aside
Resource Efficiency
from distribution preparation in
order to confront crisis, other infraTargets
Time
Capacity
structures are also required to prevent periodic crisis. The various factors violating network security can
Energy Not
Capacity
Reactive
Lifetime
Programs
Time of Use
Supplied
be classified as follows:
Utilization Compensation
Improvement
Reduction
✔ geographic and atmospheric factors, such as earthUtilization
Power
Energy
Not
Rate
of
quakes, flooding, rain, and
Indices
Load Factor
Factor
Factor
Supplied
Wastages
lightning
✔ urban factors resulting from
figure 4. The efficiency improvement indices framework.
municipal decisions that affect
Waste Management

100

ieee power & energy magazine

may/june 2014



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