IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2014 - 69

table 1. Some examples of microgrid deployments in different parts of the world.
Region

Microgrid

North America

FortZed, Fort Collins, Colorado; University of San Diego, California; Santa Rita jail, Santa Rita, California;
Perfect Power, Chicago, Illinois; BCIT microgrid, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Balls Gap Station, Milton,
West Virginia

South America

Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile; Ollagüe's microgrid, Chile; Huatacondo's microgrid, Chile

Europe

Model City of Manheim, Germany; Cell Controller Project, Denmark; CRES-Gaidouromantra, Kythnos,
Greece; Liander's Holiday Park at Bronsbergen, Zutphen, The Netherlands; RSE-DER test facility,
Italy; TECNALIA-DER test facility, Bilbao, Spain; PIME'S project, Dale, Norway; Szentendre, Hungary;
Salburua, Spain; La Graciosa Island microgrid, Spain; Optimagrid, Spain; iSare project, Guipúzcoa, Spain

Asia

Rural PV hybrid microgrid, West Bank; Hangzhou Dianzi University, China; NEDO microgrid, Aichi,
Kyotang, Hachinohe, Japan; NEDO Tohoku Fukushi University, Sendai, Japan; Shimizu Corp. microgrid,
Tokyo Gas microgrid, Aichi Institute of Technology microgrid, Japan; INER microgrid, Taiwan

Africa

Diakha Madina, Senegal

Australia

CSIRO, Kings Canyon, Coral Bay, Bremer Bay, Denhem, Esperence, Hopetoun, King Island,
Rottnest Island

Note: Information from the U.S. DOE Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration (RDSI) projects and CIGRE WG C6.11.

or cases in which microgrids could have been utilized to
improve power supply availability.

The Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake
and Its Relationship with NTT Facilities
Microgrid in Sendai, Japan
the great east Japan earthquake, which struck at 2:46 p.m.
Japan standard time on 11 march 2011, coupled with the
subsequent tsunami and nuclear accident at the Fukushima
#1 nuclear power plant, inflicted massive damages to the
infrastructure in the eastern part of Japan.
the tohoku region Pacific coast earthquake and the Fukushima #1 nuclear power plant incidents highlight an important
aspect of disasters: they are not single events with consequences
limited to the period of time when a damaging action affects
the electric power supply. From an infrastructure-planning perspective, disasters have distinct phases, some of which could
last several months or even years. the phases are 1) preparation, 2) disaster occurrence, 3) immediate aftermath, and
4) long-term aftermath. in the case of the nuclear incident at
the Fukushima #1 nuclear power plant, the preparation phase
involved the engineering and design tasks related with preparing the nuclear power plant for an earthquake and tsunami of
a given magnitude. the disaster occurrence phase was when
the tsunami struck the site. the immediate aftermath phase
included all the tasks intended to avert the nuclear accident and
the immediate activities to mitigate its effects and control the
reactors into a stable state. as of late 2013, the present phase is
the long-term aftermath in which Japan's generation capacity
has been reduced dramatically. such a drastic loss of generation
capacity, mostly caused by safety concerns derived from the
2011 disaster, has led to planned blackouts and the need for voluntary power consumption reduction, which impacts not only
the electric utilities finances but the quality of life and economic
outlook of the entire country of Japan.
may/june 2014

in the last several years, there has been a diversification
of user needs and in the development of distributed power
supplies and energy system technology in Japan. the gridtied photovoltaic (PV) systems penetration has been growing, and several wind farms have been built around Japan. it
is pertinent to note that one of those, the Kamisu wind farm,
survived strong shaking and a 5-m tsunami wave. against
this background, there has been research and the investigation of new and forward-looking power network systems.
an energy supply system for meeting consumer needs in
such a distributed environment is the multiple power quality
supply system (mPQss). the concept behind the mPQss is
to simultaneously provide power at multiple quality levels
according to consumer needs. it involves a complementary
engagement of distributed power sources, including solar
power generation systems, fuel cell systems, and existing
power systems, as well as the efficient use of batteries and
power electronics. the actual field operation of the mPQss
was conducted in sendai City, Japan, in 2003-2007. this
demonstration project was supported by the new energy and
industrial technology Development organization (neDo).
Figure 2 shows the configuration of the mPQss installed
in sendai for the demonstration project, which was the first
trial to take place in Japan in the area of power quality concepts and solutions. For this demonstration, ntt Facilities,
inc. developed and operated an mPQss that had the capability
to feed four classes (a, B1, B2, and B3) of ac and one of dc
power while meeting various customer requirements. Quality
classes a, B1, and dc were interfaced by an integrated power
supply (iPs), and classes B2 and B3 were interfaced by two
dynamic voltage restorers (DVr). the iPs comprised a bidirectional power converter, a dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter
for powering the load, a semiconductor switch, and a sealed
lead-acid battery. it supplied power in three quality classes:
dc, a, and B1. the mPQss had three types of distributed
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