IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2014 - 79

certain predefined "exceptional
conditions"; this enables automatic
downloading of about 98% of the
TsaPM recommendations, thus
improving system reliability and
increasing transfer capability.

BC Hydro's RAS System

BC Bulk Transmission System
500-kV Circuits
230-kV Circuits
Hydroelectric
Generation
Thermal Generation
Interconnections
500-kV Substation
230-kV Substation
Series Capacitor
Stations

Bc hydro's ras system consists
G.M. Shrum
of one centralized arming system
and 13 major ras schemes, covPeace Canyon
ering about 100 contingencies with
Kennedy
actions of generation shedding, load
shedding, line tripping, and shunt
Telkwa Glenannan
switching. for our purposes here,
ALBERTA
Skeena
one ras scheme is defined as one
Williston
arming matrix plus all the continPrince
gency and action signals connected
George
to that matrix, as shown in figure 4.
McLeese
a typical ras scheme can be
Mica
Chapmans
described as a matrix of latching
Guichon
Kelly Lake
Nicola
Revelstoke
relays at an arming station, where
Creekside
each column in the matrix repAshton Creek
Cheekye
Kamloops
resents an action (e.g., tripping a
Kootenay Canal
Burrard
Vaseux
Nelway
Vancouver
generator in a plant corresponding
Selkirk
Dunsmuir Meridian
American
to one arming point-see figure 4)
Cranbrook
Ingledow
Clayburn Creek
To Fortisbc
and each row represents a continVictoria
Seven Mile
gency (e.g., a transfer trip signal
WASHINGTON
coming from the loss of a transmisfigure 3. The BC power grid.
sion line at some remote location).
a latching relay is available to connect each contingency input to each action output (i.e., for each arming pattern (or arming statuses) of the ras scheme must
node in the matrix). receipt of a trip signal (or contingency therefore be updated constantly according to the precontingency
signal) causes the switching mechanism of any device(s) system conditions. figure 5 illustrates the dependency of rasa
armed by the matrix to switch for that contingency. in some patterns on precontingency power system states (power equipinstallations, the logic is implemented by a set of redundant ment statuses and power flow of the overall power system).
Plcs. (Without losing generality, this article uses PLCs as a
generic term for this kind of device even though some devices Overview of BC Hydro's
are not necessarily implemented by Plc per se.) figure 4 EMS/SCADA System
shows a contact logic diagram for such an arming matrix. The Bc hydro has two geographically separate control centers,
matrix can be as large as 48 rows (contingencies) by 16 col- each of which is fully redundant in both hardware and softumns (actions). The rTUs are used to set up the latching relays ware. in each control center, two redundant eMs/scada
in the desired pattern, via scada. The latching relays then systems have been implemented for the real-time operations
hold the pattern (until it is changed by a subsequent command of Bc hydro power grid. a critical piece of infrastructure, the
sequence) and provide the current status indication.
eMs/scada system is used to monitor and control Bc elecThe purpose of the ras actions is to mitigate security tric power transmission and generation via rTUs at substaproblems caused by contingencies on the power system, tions and power plants. it provides system operators with a
which include:
detailed view of real-time power system conditions, thereby
facilitating decision making.
✔ angular instability or transient instability
scada is responsible for the acquisition of real-time
✔ frequency instability
data
from rTUs and for alarm and event processing. it also
✔ thermal overloading
enables
real-time control by sending commands to rTUs,
✔ voltage instability or voltage limits violation.
any particular ras scheme, however, is designed to miti- i.e., switching operations, the raise and lower controls of
gate one or a combination of the security problems above, transformer taps and generation outputs, and so on. The
depending on the precontingency system conditions. The advanced eMs applications built on top of scada consist
may/june 2014

ieee power & energy magazine

79



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2014

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