IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2014 - 86

operator participation would, however, improve the overall
rasa decision-making process. some exceptional conditions have therefore been identified under which the automatic downloading mode will be suspended and an alarm
will be enunciated. Upon receipt of such an alarm, operators will verify the causes of the suspension alarms and take
actions to resolve the corresponding issues.
The exceptional conditions (see figure 8) are divided into
two main categories:
1) Those having to do with the software "health status"
of TsaPM and rasa:
*	in the case of TsaPM restarts, when the application
stops and restarts for any reason-if it stops and does
not restart for a predefined period of time, operators
will be notified
*	in the case of TsaPM errors, when any errors (including data retrieval and calculation errors) are detected
at run time
*	when the connection between TsaPM and the
rasa application is down
*	in cases when rasa fails to download the new arming pattern to the arming station rTUs.
2) Those having to do with critical power system
conditions:
*	cases when the "forced match" template is required
*	other critical operating conditions, such as transfer
limit violations, multiple active islands, and so on
(see figure 8).
in this last case ("other critical operating conditions"),
operators will verify the rasa patterns recommended by
TsaPM and remove the particular conditions from the list
of "exceptional conditions" if the TsaPM recommendation
is satisfactory. if it is not, operators will call members of the
eMs support staff to further investigate the issues. for all
the other exceptional conditions that are classified as "must
check" and cannot be removed from the list of "exceptional
conditions," the suspension alarm will be kept up until the
issue is resolved. further, TsaPM will not be executed if the
quality of the power flow base case is unacceptable according to the predefined criteria. operators will be notified if
the state estimator fails to provide an acceptable power flow
base case.

Closing Remarks and Future Perspective
This article presents an automatic arming system for Bc hydro's
ras system that involves about 13 major ras schemes in the
Bc hydro system. The centralized arming system allows better coordination among the ras schemes. With its automatic
downloading functionality, the arming system can periodically
update the rasa patterns at all arming stations. The current
system has been in mature operation for more than eight years.
it runs in automatic mode about 98% of the time, and the average suspension time is about 7 min, which largely relieves the
operating staff's burden of verifying, validating, and downloading the rasa patterns recommended by TsaPM and improves
86

ieee power & energy magazine

the consistency of the matching of the arming patterns with
actual power system conditions.
With the rapid growth of TsaPM, the maintenance and
constant development of TsaPM rules have become more and
more time consuming and resource intensive. To capitalize on
the availability of online dynamic security assessment (dsa)
technology, Bc hydro is now undertaking a capital project to
implement an online dsa application to validate the actual
rasa patterns by means of time domain simulations and thus
to provide rasa recommendations in real time. it is envisioned
that the mature and reliable eMs and scada infrastructure for
automatic rasa and downloading will be maintained and the
ras recommendation will be provided partially by the online
dsa, which will gradually replace the rule-based functionality
of TsaPM in the long term.

Acknowledgments
The authors appreciate the comments of emile struyk of
Bc hydro and gratefully acknowledge their many useful discussions and interactions with colleagues from the
control room, systems Planning, and Protection and
control Telecom departments of Bc hydro.

For Further Reading
s. c. Pai and J. sun, "BcTc's experience towards a smarter
grid - increasing limits and reliability with centralized intelligence remedial action schemes," in Proc. IEEE Canada
Electrical Power and Energy Conf., Vancouver, Bc, oct.
2008, pp. 1-7.
cigre Task force 38.02.19 (convener: d. Karlsson),
"system protection schemes in power networks," cigre
Tech. rep., no. 187, June 2001.
M. Begovic, d. novosel, d. Karlsson, c. henville, and
g. Michel, "Wide-area protections and emergency control,"
Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 876-889, 2005.
V. Madani, d. novosel, s. horowitz, M. adamiak, J.
amantegui, d. Karlsson, s. imai, and a. apostolov, "ieee
Psrc report on global industry experiences with system integrity protection schemes (siPs)," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2143-2155, oct. 2010.
s. horowitz, d. novosel, V. Madani, and M. adamiak,
"system-wide protection," IEEE Power & Energy Mag., vol. 6,
no. 5, pp. 34-42, sept./oct. 2008.
Wecc relay Work group. (2006, nov. 28). Wecc remedial action scheme design guide reforMaT. [online]. available: http://www.wecc.biz/committees/standingcommittees/
oc/

Biographies
Ziwen Yao is with Bc hydro, canada.
Veera Raju Vinnakota is with caiso.
Qing Zhu is with Bc hydro, canada.
Charles Nichols is with Bc hydro, canada.
Greg Dwernychuk is with Bc hydro, canada.
Tito Inga-Rojas is with Bc hydro, canada.

p&e

may/june 2014


http://www.wecc.biz/committees/standingcommittees/

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