IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2014 - 90

Dynamic Voltage Regulation Modes

Active Power Curtailment

80

Ramp Rates Between
Set Point Changes
Are Controlled

75
70

80

Power (MW)

Set Point (MW)

through the ScAdA hMi, the plant control system can be
set to operate in one of the three modes of automatic voltage
regulation (AvR): voltage regulation, power-factor regulaCurrent SP New SP
tion, or reactive-power control. the three AvR modes are
Active Power Limit 290.00 290.00 MW
illustrated in the ScAdA hMi screen shown in Figure 2.
Ramp Up Rate
15.0
15.0 MW/min
note that the plant can operate in only one of the three operRamp Down Rate
15.0
15.0 MW/min
ating modes at any time.
in the voltage-regulation mode, the controller maintains
the specified voltage set point at the poi by regulating the
Cancel
Confirm
reactive power produced by the inverters as well as other
Changes
Changes
devices such as capacitor banks. in the power-factor regulation mode, the controller maintains the specified power facfigure 4. An active power curtailment HMI.
tor. the operation of the controller is illustrated in Figure 3,
which shows field data from a pv plant producing about
212 MW of active power at that time.
Figure 3 illustrates the response of the plant when the
output limit. it also uses the active power management function to ensure that the plant output does not exceed the desired power factor set point is changed from 0.98 to 1.0. the
ramp rates, to the extent possible. it cannot, however, always controller commands the inverters to change their reactive
accommodate rapid reduction in irradiance due to cloud cover. power output to meet the new power factor set point, using
a closed-loop control mechanism. the figure illustrates that
the inverters respond very rapPower Curtailment at Different Levels
idly. Within a few seconds (<4 s)
100
100
the new set point is achieved in a
95
95
closed-loop control mode. More
specifically, the rise time to reach
Inverters Are Turned Down/Off
90
90
90% of steady-state value shown
to Curtail Output
in the figure is about 3.2 s.
85
85

Active Power
Management

75

through the ScAdA hMi, the
controller can also be set to control the active power output of the
plant. When the control system
detects that the active power at poi
exceeds the specified set point, it

70
0

2

4

6

8

10
12
Time (min)

14

16

18

20

figure 5. Power curtailment at different levels.

Output of Each Block

Plant Output Power
Additional Energy Captured

Power

Power

Increase in
Power Limit

Curtailed

Block

Potential
Power

Plant
Output Limit

Time

figure 6. The impact of cloud passage under curtailment.
90

ieee power & energy magazine

may/june 2014



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2014

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