IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015 - 31

areas needed for strengthening
electric grid resilience over the
next ten years. New distribution
management systems that integrate advanced visualization and
situational awareness, along with
look-ahead capabilities, to provide viable control solutions need
to be developed to help utility
operators respond to the range of
threats and mitigate and recover
from damages. Moreover, faster,
more accurate, and metrics-based
optimization tools for restoration
prioritization will be needed to
support faster disruption recovery for damaged systems. Targeted applications include optimal
repair scheduling, utility and
communications crew logistics,
control system restoration, and
resource coordination and allocation decisions.

Analyze and Manage
Interdependencies

Increasing Dynamics
and Uncertainty

Affordable

Adaptable,
Flexible

Katrina,
Sandy

Accessible

9/11
Secure

Reliable
Clean

1960s
Blackouts
(1965, 1996, 2003)

1970s
Oil Embargo,
Environmental

figure 3.	The	eight	key	attributes	of	a	future	electricity	system,	defined	by	the	DOE	GTT.

Electricity delivery and other critical infrastructures (e.g.,
communications, water, and transportation) are interconnected and mutually dependent. The interdependencies
among critical infrastructures and the potential for cascading effects of disruptions from one infrastructure to others
are complex to analyze and manage. Although models and
simulation tools are available to address aspects of individual infrastructures, a comprehensive framework for interdependency modeling and simulation is needed to allow for
coupling or integrating multiple disparate models and simulations to conduct cross infrastructure analysis to address the
threat assessment, preparedness, mitigation, response, and
recovery issues.

grid. A notional example of a PDF, expressed as probability of consequence versus consequence, is shown in Figure
4. The metrics are used to not only measure an existing
system's resilience to extreme events but also analyze alternative investment scenarios for resilience improvements.
The analysis process and conceptual framework were presented in a stakeholder workshop convened by the DOE
in June 2014. A report was published by Sandia, stating
that  continued research is needed in the following areas,
among others:
✔ improved quantification of human/societal consequences
based on reduced system performance in a disruption

Ongoing Resilient Grid R&D Projects

Conceptual Framework
for Developing Resilience Metrics
In response to the need for quantitative, risk-based resilience metrics, Sandia National Laboratories has introduced
an iterative process for resilience analysis and a conceptual
framework for developing metrics. This framework would
result in representing the developed metrics as probability density functions (PDFs) of consequences from one or
more threats to a system such as the electric distribution

Distribution of Consequence
Base System
Improved System

Probability
of Consequence

To address some of these near-term needs, the DOE Smart
Grid R&D Program has launched several projects over the
last two years. These projects and their progress, achieved or
planned, are highlighted as follows.

may/june 2015

Safe

Grid
Modernization

Resilient

1940s and 1950s
Federal Power Act

Extreme Values:
Base System
Improved System

Mean

Consequence
Mean

figure 4. The resilience metric, represented as a PDF, and
its use to compare the improved resilience of the system
with an investment alternative (red trace) to an existing,
unimproved system (green trace).
ieee power & energy magazine

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015

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