IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015 - 57

now capitalizing on their experience; e.g., Shimizu Corporation is promoting "eco BCP." They propose a microgrid with
both CHP systems and extreme energy saving measures,
such as LED lighting, because lowering energy consumption
contributes to both emergency energy resilience and cost
reduction in normal conditions. Tokyo Gas is involved in a
renovation project east of Tamachi Station, a lively Tokyo
business district. Electricity and heat are supplied to public
facilities including a hospital by a secure energy system consisting of fuel cell CHP, natural gas gensets, solar thermal
water heating, as well as standard boilers and chillers. The
system is sized to fully supply the hospital's electricity and
heat loads maintaining full emergency medical functionality,
and it will be a true microgrid.
The following projects are not true microgrids, but they
include elements of microgrid thinking. According to the
Fundamental Policy on Recovery from GEJE, the central
government encourages the installation of public facility
back-up systems involving renewable energy and batteries so
they could be used as emergency response centers and shelters. The Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry has initiated the Smart Community Promotion Project to subsidize
municipal communities making their communities smarter
and more resilient. Eight communities in the Tohoku region
that suffered severe GEJE damage have been awarded grants.
Kitakami City in Iwate Prefecture will introduce a backup
system including PV generation and batteries to supply its
city hall and nearby facilities for a disaster response center.
Electricity distribution controllers installed ensure electricity
supply to critical loads from emergency backup.
In one of ten projects funded by the Ministry of Environment, Higashi-Matsushima City in Miyagi Prefecture
will take a different approach to energy resilience. It will
introduce a "smart pole," which is a portable backup device
consisting of a 1-kW wind turbine, a 260-W PV array, and a
small (4 × 12 V 100 Ah) battery bank. This device is intended
to achieve 100% electricity continuity at public facilities,
especially disaster response centers. Additional stationary
PV and battery back-up systems will also be installed.

Conclusion
The horrific GEJE experience has had an understandably profound effect on Japan's national perception of resilience. Fortunately, the country's long rich and distinguished microgrid
research experience provides guidance toward a more secure
energy system. The two shining examples of the Roppongi
Hills microgrid and the SM, both of which functioned as
secure islands following the earthquake and tsunami, demonstrated that localized energy systems with well-developed
lifelines are the key to maintaining critical emergency services. Further, a consensus is emerging for the principle of
HeQ. Rationing limited energy resources to critical loads during emergencies provides for the maximum of energy service.
During normal operating conditions, as demonstrated at the

may/june 2015

SM, providing varying service quality to loads can lower costs
because gourmet power is not squandered on gourmand loads.

Acknowledgments
The authors have benefitted from valuable input as well as
graphics and other materials from several sources. They
particularly recognize the following: Andrea Mammoli at
the University of New Mexico, Alex McEachern at Power
Standards Laboratory, Kimio Morino at Shimizu Corp., and
Satoshi Morozumi at NEDO. Joe Eto of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed a draft of the article and
provided helpful input. Chris Marnay's participation is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Trade
Development Administration. Alexis Kwasinski's contribution is funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation
under a CAREER ECCS award #0845828.

For Further Reading
Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry. (2014, Apr.).
The 4th Strategic Energy Plan of Japan: Summary. [Online].
Available: http://www.jaif.or.jp/english/news_images/pdf/
ENGNEWS01_1399887558P.pdf
A. K. Tang and C. Edwards, "Tohoku, Japan, Earthquake
and Tsunami of March 11, 2011. Lifeline performance,"
Technical Council of Lifeline Earthquake Engineering,
American Society of Civil Engineers, in press.
International Electrotechnical Committee. (2013). Microgrids for disaster preparedness and recovery: with electricity continuity plans and systems. [Online]. Available:
http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/microgrids/?ref=extfooter
Committee on Increasing National Resilience to Hazards
and Disasters. (2012). Disaster resilience: A national imperative, The National Academies. [Online]. Available: http://
www.nap.edu/catalog/13457/disaster-resilience-a-nationalimperative
C. Marnay and L. Judy, "Serving electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality
via microgrids," Electr. J., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 7-15, Oct. 2012.
A. Kwasinki, V. Krishnamurthy, J. Song, and R. Sharma,
"Availability evaluation of micro-grids for resistant power
supply during natural disasters," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid,
vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 2007-2018, Dec. 2012.

Biographies
Chris Marnay is retired from Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory, Berkeley, United States.
Hirohisa Aki is with the National Institute of Advanced
Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan.
Keiichi Hirose is with NTT Facilities, Tokyo, Japan.
Alexis Kwasinski is with the University of Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, United States.
Saori Ogura is with the University of California, Berkeley, United States.
p&e
Takao Shinji is with Tokyo Gas, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://www.jaif.or.jp/english/news_images/pdf/ http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/microgrids/?ref=extfooter http://http:// http://www.nap.edu/catalog/13457/disaster-resilience-a-national

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