IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015 - 63

It is becoming more and more apparent that further
considerations beyond the classical reliability-oriented view
are needed for keeping the lights on.

may/june 2015

Boosting the Resilience
of Future Power Systems
The majority of electrical utilities worldwide have recognized the necessity of taking actions to boost grid resilience
to high-impact, low-probability events. These efforts aim
to achieve system adaptation, which refers to the measures
taken to reduce the impact of future events, and system survivability, which refers to the ability to maintain an adequate
functionality during and after the event.
These goals could be achieved through resilience engineering for enhancing the resilience of the network before
and during the event and disaster response and risk management for optimizing the response following the event
(Figure 5), which would be the output of the vulnerability/
adaptation studies based on previous experiences (Figure 2).
These two resilience goals can be fulfilled through hardening

Resilience
Engineering
Resilience
Disaster
Response and
Risk Management

figure 5. Boosting power systems resilience.

High
Effectiveness

of the resilience level of a power system. Both short-term
and long-term resilience metrics are needed accordingly
(Figure 3). In addition, as mentioned earlier, distinction
between operational and infrastructure resilience might have
to be made within the short-term assessment. This would
help establish resilience-building strategies and policies for
coping more effectively with the upcoming disaster and also
for being better prepared for future disasters.
The resilience assessment methods should be capable
of quantifying the frequency and duration of customer
disconnections due to severe disasters and also the number of customers disconnected. They should also provide
global resilience indexes of the entire power infrastructure, as well as area- and component-specific resilience
indices, which would help target resilience enhancement
measures. These resilience assessment methodologies need
to reflect as realistically as possible the effect of a highimpact, low-probability disaster. Finally, time dimension
needs to be incorporated explicitly in the assessment so
as to capture the capability of the system of both slowly
degrading from and fast recovering back to the original preevent state. To do so, the spatial-temporal influence of the
event on the resilience of the power infrastructure needs
to be adequately modeled. If we take the effect of weather
events as an example, Figure 4 demonstrates a procedure
of the infinite building-resilience procedure using the concept of fragility curves. These curves express the failure
probability of power system components as a function of
a weather parameter, e.g., wind speed or rain intensity.
Similar curves can be developed to relate, for example, the
restoration time to the density and duration of the weather
event. By mapping the time-series profile (thus considering
the event's intertemporal dimension) of the weather event
at different locations of the power system (thus considering the event's interspatial dimension) to these fragility
curves, the components' weather-related failure probabilities and the resilience implications can be quantified using
suitable multidimensional metrics (for instance, energy
not supplied, duration of interruptions, and time to full
infrastructure recovery). Following this, as previously discussed, resilience enhancement measures can be applied if
necessary. An example of resilience enhancement is shown
in the fragility curve of Figure 4, in which the components
are made more robust to higher intensities of the weather
event. This procedure needs to be continuously updated for
achieving the desired resilience level.

Hardening/
Reinforcement
Measures

Low
Less
Affordable

Hybrid
Smart/
Operational Measures

Cost

More
Affordable

figure 6. A conceptual comparison of cost versus the
effectiveness of resilience engineering approaches.
ieee power & energy magazine

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2015 - Cover4
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