IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 33

In anticipation of the applicability of TE systems to emerging
challenges in grid integration, the GridWise Architecture Council
began to build a community of practice in the area of TE systems.

the TE framework and these correspond directly to sections
4.1-4.4 of the TE framework (Figure 4).
Interoperability Maturity Model

Interoperability, according to the EICTA Interoperability
White Paper, is "the capability of two or more networks,
systems, devices, applications, or components to exchange
information between them and to use the information so
exchanged." While implicitly recognized since the dawn
of engineering, interoperability has only relatively recently
received formal attention in the form of modeling. Yet
despite the obvious importance of interoperability, little
has been done until very recently in terms of developing a
method for measuring levels of interoperability. In 2012, the
GWAC developed and tested an interoperability maturity
model (IMM) based on the GWAC stack. The model was
tested by applying it to smart grid demonstration grant projects cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy to obtain
feedback on the strengths and weaknesses of trying to apply
the IMM tools to real-world efforts.
To have a situation where interoperability exists, we
need multiple entities that are required to interact with
each other, potentially at many different technical and
business levels. Interoperability is a shared property of
these entities that allows them to work together in the
manner intended, including the proper interpretation and
use of exchanged data. In other words, it includes both
technical and cognitive abilities. Therefore, measures of
interoperability must take into account technical, social,
political, and organizational factors that impact systemto-system performance across multiple parties, and the
GWAC has carried this thinking forward into its development of the TE framework.

Conclusions
When the GWAC was formed in 2005, we envisioned a system that puts the electric consumer at the center, rather the
end of the line, a system in which companies invest in their
own electricity generation, selling excess power directly to
other companies. Now, in 2016 the industry is working to
evolve the electric power system to have these characteristics.
TE systems are a promising approach for facilitating
such change, especially the integration of large numbers
of DERs, many of which will be owned by customers. The
GWAC continues to work to build a community of practice for TE systems through its regular meetings, focused
may/june 2016

workshops, and outreach to the industry. All interested parties are invited to join the discussion through participation
in these activities.

For Further Reading
GridWise Architecture Council. GridWise transactive energy framework, the gridwise interoperability context setting
framework, and the other GWAC documents and proceedings. [Online]. Available: www.gridwiseac.org
F. C. Schweppe, "Homeostatic control-Power systems
2000," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 42-47, July 1978.
F. C. Schweppe, R. D. Tabors, J. L. Kirtley, Jr., H. R.
Outhred, F. H. Pickel, and A. J. Cox, "Homeostatic utility
control," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-99, no. 3,
pp. 1151-1163, May/June 1980.
P. De Martini and L. Kristov. (2105). Distribution systems in a high distributed energy resources future: Planning,
market design, operation and oversight. [Online]. Available:
https://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/FEUR_2%20distribution%
20systems%2020151023.pdf
D. J. Hammerstrom, et al. (2007, Oct.). Information on
the GridWise Olympic Peninsula demonstration. [Online].
Available: http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/
technical_reports/PNNL-17167.pdf
Reports on the transactive control technology of the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration. [Online]. Available: www.pnwsmartgrid.org
K. Kok. (2013, May 13). The PowerMatcher: Smart coordination for the smart electricity grid. [Online]. Available: http://dare.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/handle/1871/43567/
dissertation.pdf?sequence=1

Acknowledgments
The work summarized in this article is the result of contributions by the members of the GWAC and those who participate in the workshops and activities of the Council. The work
was supported, in part, by the U.S. Department of Energy
under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

Biographies
David Forfia is with the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Taylor, Texas.
Mark Knight is with CGI Utilities, Billerica, Massachusetts.
Ron Melton is with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.
p&e
ieee power & energy magazine

33


http://www.gridwiseac.org https://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/FEUR_2 distribution http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/ http://www.pnwsmartgrid.org http://dare.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/handle/1871/43567/

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050621
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030421
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010221
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com