IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - 49

The IDE4L concepts and technical solutions
extend the monitoring and control of the distribution
grid to all voltage levels.
✔ a congestion management business case, where

*	a portion of the network is monitored by collecting
data from IEDs (monitoring use case)
*	its status is determined through a state-estimation
algorithm (state estimation use case)
*	pseudomeasurements are sent to the state estimator
based on a forecast of load and production profiles
(load and production forecast use case)
*	in case that forecast is missing, fixed profiles are
used as a back-up input (not a use case)
*	eventually, the network performance is optimized by
the secondary (power) controller, issuing set point
to IEDs
✔ the FLISR, where IEDs are communicating based on
a peer-to-peer paradigm to clear faults on the network.
Table 1 shows the mapping between the use cases tested
in the project and the demonstration/lab site where the test
was performed. The laboratory demonstration sites are TUT,
RWTH, and SCH.

Conclusions of Demonstration Use Cases
The LV load and production forecast demonstrations were
successfully finalized in the field as well as in lab sites,
proving that the proposed algorithm works even if its performance may differ depending on the conditions of use.
On one hand, the load forecast turned out to be quite accurate and consistent across demonstration sites. On the
other hand, the production forecast showed less accurate
and consistent solutions, due to the volatility of RESs and
their dependence on the weather forecast, thus emphasizing the need for a more advanced and customized algorithm to predict production. Finally, demonstration results
showed that, for both load and generation, the algorithm
is very consistent in predicting power/energy data over a
one-day horizon.
The demonstration of the LV network state estimation
proved to be more difficult than expected. Problems in
monitoring were frequent, and since the state estimator
relies heavily on input measurements, its performance
was often affected by issues in the monitoring systems. As
learned from demonstrations, a fail-safe backup solution
should always be available to overcome potential problems
from missing measurements. In the UNR site, fixed load
profiles were available for all individual load and generation points through an algorithm designed and developed
for this site. Despite several challenges, the LV network
state-estimation demonstrations were finalized, and it was
may/june 2017

proven that the state-estimation algorithm works properly
and provides an improved view of the state of the network.
The demonstration results confirm that the proposed and
implemented secondary controller for congestion management operates in all the demonstration cases as expected and
that no adverse time-domain operation occurs. The same
controller is able to operate for MV and LV grids. The results
also show that the algorithm is able to enhance grid performance in all the demonstration cases. In general terms, it can
be said that the weaker the network and the larger the amount
of generation connected to it, the greater the benefits of the
secondary controller. The annual benefits of the secondary
controller were evaluated and show that the secondary controller is able to both prevent voltage and current congestions and decrease annual network losses. The integration of
the MV and LV secondary controllers was also effective and
resulted in correct operation interactions. Coordinated time
delays of the automatic voltage control relays seem to be an
adequate measure to prevent back-and-forth control operations in most of the cases.
The FLISR solution proposed in IDE4L is distributed
based on IEC 61850 GOOSE communication between IEDs
deployed along the distribution network, on processed local
measurements, and on a logic selectivity that depends on the
switching technology available at each secondary substation. This kind of implementation has shown to be able to
completely isolate faults in fewer than 2 s (with time settings
selected for the SCH demonstration site) while reducing the
number of customers affected by momentary interruptions.
The deployment of circuit breakers along the MV feeders

table 1. Use cases versus demonstrators mapping.
Use Case

TUT RWTH SCH UFD OST UNR

MV load and
production forecast
MV power control
in real-time
operation

X
X

X

Decentralized FLISR X

X

X

X

LV load and
production forecast

X

X

X

X

X

LV state estimation

X

X

X

X

X

LV power control in
real-time operation

X

X

X

ieee power & energy magazine

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