IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - 55

Voltage (V)

House Voltage
in Normal Operation
260
255
250
245
240
235
230
Nominal Voltage
225
220
215
210
00:00 03:00 06:00

House Voltage
with CLASS

A Supplied Voltage
Within Statutory Limits

Voltage Limit

09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00
Time (hh:mm)-24 h
(a)

21:00

Demand Reduction (W)

60
Voltage Reduction 10 V

50

Demand Reduction Evening (~50 W)

40
30

Voltage Reduction 10 V

20

Demand Reduction Changes
in Time → Time-Varying
Source of Flexibility

Demand Reduction Early Morning (~6 W)

10
0
00:00

03:00

06:00

09:00 12:00 15:00
Time (hh:mm)-24 h

18:00

21:00

(b)

Demand Composition, Early Morning
Wet
Appliances
0.6%

Heating
Appliances
1.8%

Electronic
Appliances
28.6%

Lighting
Appliances
0.0%
Other
Appliances
1.2%

Cold
Appliances
67.8%

Demand Composition, Evening
Cold
Appliances
16.0%

Other
Appliances
0.3%

Lighting
Appliances
75.6%

Electronic
Appliances
7.4%
Heating
The Demand
Appliances
Composition
0.5%
Changes in Time
Wet
Appliances
0.2%

(c)

figure 1. An illustration of time-varying aspects when reducing voltages. (a) The supplied voltage of one house and (b)
the corresponding power consumption when a voltage reduction of 10 V is applied during two half-hour periods (early
morning and late afternoon). (c) A breakdown of demand composition during the two time frames.

Figure 2 represents an overview of the primary substation OLTC operation within the voltage-led LM scheme that
CLASS adopts when flexibility is needed. This procedure is
summarized in the five following steps.
1) The TSO sends a control signal to specific primary
substations, which triggers the aggregated demand
reduction needed at the required time window. This
is possible as the DNO shares, via an Inter-Control
may/june 2017

Center Protocol (ICCP) link, real-time demand re sponse tables that provide, for a corresponding
group of primary substations, the time-varying capability in terms of voltage and, consequently, demand reduction.
2) Based on the status of the distribution network (normal or abnormal operation), the DNO decides whether
or not to allow the TSO to control the assets.
ieee power & energy magazine

55



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - Cover4
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