IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - 58

OLTC

(a)

(b)

ASC

AVC

DT
(c)

(d)

figure 4. The primary substation equipment: the (a) OLTC, (b) voltage and current transducer, (c) DT, and (d) AVCs and
ASC. (Source: ENWL; used with permission).

were tapped by several positions and the corresponding
demand variation was measured. The component-based
approach, on the other hand, estimates the load model using
a bottom-up approach that aggregates the demand and
load models downstream from customers without the need
for measurements.
To assess the voltage capability of each primary substation, the three main voltage levels in the United Kingdom
[extra-high voltage (EHV): 132-33 kV, high voltage (HV):
11-6.6 kV, and low voltage (LV): 0.4 kV] are considered
separately. Finally, once the time-varying load model and
voltage capability are determined, the potential demand reduction can be quantified.
58

ieee power & energy magazine

Realistic Load Models
The component-based approach produces an aggregated
demand profile and time-varying load model by considering load models and demand profiles of single residential
appliances fed by a given primary substation [Figure 6(a)].
Fig ure 6(b) and (c) illustrates this for a mainly residential
primary substation with more than 14,000 custo mers
during a winter weekday. The np factor shown in Figure 6(c) describes the primary substation load model by
defining the exponential relationship between voltage and
demand: the higher the np, the higher the dependency
of demand to voltages. For instance, if np = 2, the demand
will vary quadratically with the voltage; np = 1 implies that
may/june 2017



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