IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - 59

the demand varies linearly with
the voltage.
Thanks to a tool that simulates
U.K. residential demand (per appliance) and load models for individual appliances available in the literature, the only information required
for each primary substation is the
number of residential customers
and the total peak demand.
Despite the fact that the
component-based approach is
limited to residential customers
and depends on other models, it
manages to realistically capture
the aggregated variability in the
demand composition. As shown in
Figure 6(b), during early hours of
the day, appliances that cool and
heat such as space heaters (representing only ~20% of residential

Realistic Load Model
The Voltage-Demand Relationship
Measurement Based

Component Based

Voltage Capability
The Extent to Which the Voltage Can Be Reduced
EHV Influence

HV Study

LV Influence

EHV Voltages
During Normal
Operation

Studies on Real
HV Networks
with LV and
EHV Influences

Maximum
Voltage
Reduction
Acceptable to
Customers

Demand Reduction
How Much Demand
Reduction Can Be
Unlocked
HV Study
Studies on Real HV
Networks Considering:
* Realistic Load Model
* Voltage Capability

figure 5. A methodology overview showing how the demand reduction of a given
primary substation is quantified.

16

More Light
Other
Light
Wet
Heating and Cooking
Electronic
More Electronics
Cold

14
Primary Substation
(Hundreds of
Secondary Substation)

Demand (MW)

12

Secondary Substation
(Hundreds of Houses)
House
(Dozens of Appliances)

10
8

More Heaters

6
4
2

Appliance

0
00:00

(a)
1.3

06:00

09:00 12:00 15:00
Time (hh:mm), 24 h
(b)

More Responsive
(More Heaters)

1.2
Load Model-np

03:00

18:00

21:00

More Responsive
(More Light)

1.1
1.0
0.9
Less Responsive
(More Electronics)

0.8
0.7
00:00

03:00

06:00

09:00
12:00
15:00
Time (hh:mm), 24 h
(c)

18:00

21:00

figure 6. (a) An overview of the component-based approach, (b) the estimated primary substation demand with breakdown per appliance type, and (c) the estimated time-varying load model for the same primary substation.
may/june 2017

ieee power & energy magazine

59



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017

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