IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - 61

DNOs could provide a new source of flexibility
by controlling existing voltage regulation devices only
when and to the extent required by the TSO.
of approximately 15 MW (winter, at around 6:00 p.m.) was
found to be able to achieve up to 600 kW of demand re duction (autumn, at around 6:00 p.m.) without affecting LV
customers and considering all distribution network interactions. However, during times with lower demand and limited
voltage capability, this reduction could be as little as 40 kW
(summer, early morning).

Regional and National Benefits
The benefits that could be unlocked by an LM scheme can
be fully understood only when the contributions of millions of customers are considered. To this end, a quantification assessed the benefits that CLASS could unlock at both
regional (for the northwest of England, with ~2.1 million
residential customers) and national (for the United Kingdom, with ~27.9 million residential customers) levels. This
was accomplished by extrapolating the results obtained
for the primary substations involved in the trials accord-

EHV

ing to demand composition estimates for the regional and
national cases.
The results of such extrapolations are shown in Figure 9
(seasonal half-hourly demand reduction). For the northwest
of England, with more than 360 primary substations and
a peak demand of 4 GW during winter, it is possible to
unlock a demand reduction that varies from 65 MW (summer) up to 235 MW (winter). The northwest of England
represents about 1/15th of the total U.K. demand, which
has about 55 GW of peak demand (winter) and 27 GW of
minimum demand (summer). It was estimated that a nationwide deployment of CLASS, assuming the same network
operability as in the northwest of England, could provide a
demand reduction that varies from 1.1 GW (summer) to over
3.2 GW (winter).
Based on these figures, initial estimates (see Figure 10)
suggest that, between 2015 and 2029, the regional implementation of CLASS could reduce the cost of balancing

HV

LV

Network Topology
Thousands of Customers

Network Topology
Hundreds of Thousands of Customers

Network Topology
Hundreds of Customers

OLTC

EHV Influence
How the Voltages in EHV
Affect the OLTC

LV Influence
How the LV Customers Limit
the OLTC Voltage Reduction

Secondary
Substation Features
Primary Substation
Features

figure 8. The voltage capability quantification in a whole distribution network.
may/june 2017

ieee power & energy magazine

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