IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2017 - 70

1.2

1.0

60,000

1.0

0.8

20,000

0.6
0

0.4

-20,000
-40,000

21 March

22 March

23 March

40,000

0.8

20,000

0.6

0
0.4

-20,000

0.2

-40,000

0.0

-60,000

State of Charge (%)

80,000

Power (W)

Power (W)

40,000

1.2

State of Charge (%)

60,000

0.2
8 August

9 August

(a)

10 August

0.0

(b)

Photovoltaic

Wind Turbine

Batteries

Diesel

Loads

SoC

figure 5. The Puertecitos microgrid operation: (a) a low-demand scenario and (b) a high-demand scenario.

difference in operating costs between systems with
smart capabilities and without them. Consequently,
traditional business models at the distribution level are
compatible with resilience targets specified by public
policies that cover capital expenditures.
✔ The experience from pilot projects based on isolated
microgrids can be converted into a learning platform
(public good) for future resilient distribution systems.
Figure 6 depicts a methodological proposal that, in its
first stage, includes the assessment of four main aspects:
✔ Local conditions: environmental aspects such as temperature and humidity must be considered. It is also
important to identify major disturbances that the location may be exposed to, such as earthquakes, tsunamis,
and floods.

Local
Conditions

Stakeholders
Participation

Energy Resources
Availability

Network
Infrastructure

System
Design

Operational
Capabilities
Role of
Stakeholders
Business
Model
Resilience Framework

figure 6. A methodological approach.
70

ieee power & energy magazine

✔ Energy resource availability: the identification of lo-

cal energy resources such as wind, solar radiation, and
water inflows.
✔ Stakeholder participation: isolated microgrids require
the active participation of local communities. In this
context, the involvement of local stakeholders is crucial (such as representatives of local communities, institutions, and the private sector).
✔ Network infrastructure: this aspect is particularly important for a microgrid embedded in distribution systems.
The resources and the smart grid system to be deployed
for the microgrid should also consider the interactions
(and impacts) on the existing network infrastructure
during normal operation (i.e., a non-isolated microgrid).
Further considerations during system design and development include the following:
✔ Operational capabilities: features such as black start,
load control, and islanding operation are defined in
response to the project's local conditions.
✔ Role of stakeholders: it is important to define how to
articulate the different responsibilities and roles of the
stakeholders. Today, community plays a more active
role, so this definition includes consumers, network
operators, and government institutions.
✔ Business model: a proper definition of how to integrate the cost associated with the smart grid solutions
into the tariff model, considering that this feature is
related to capital expenditures.

Upcoming Projects
The framework discussed in the previous section is being
employed to propose and design two new projects: an emergency microgrid in the Arica city distribution system and a
new distribution system in Diego de Almagro, a city that was
severely damaged by a flood in 2015.
may/june 2017



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