IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - 80

table 1. The wind and solar capacity
by project phase.

Wind
Capacity
(MW)

Solar PV
Capacity
(MW)

Total
WindSolar PV
Capacity
(MW)

Phase 1-a

Ananthapur

16

25

41

Phase 1-b

Ananthapur

71

68

139

Phase 2

Ananthapur

99

91

190

Kutch

18.4

21

39.4

Ananthapur

345

325

670

Kutch

29.9

41

70.9

Ananthapur

531

509

1,040

Kutch

48.3

62

110.3

Phase 3

Total

wind turbines and PV arrays generally yields a small roughness effect on the wind turbines by the arrays. solar panels
may have a significant impact on local roughness if larger
foliage (e.g., tall trees) will likely be removed to make room
for solar arrays or if a significant area upwind of the turbines
in the primary wind direction is expected to be covered with
solar arrays. However, this type of extreme scenario did not
apply for this project.
The Effect of Wind Turbines on PV Siting

the most obvious way that solar arrays can be impacted by
the location of wind turbines comes from the shadow that they
cast. this shading effect depends on the time of day and the
orientation of the turbines with respect to the panels. shadowflicker analysis was adapted to assess the level of shading
impact at receptor locations across the solar arrays. Using this
customized methodology, the shading fraction at each receptor
was calculated for every hour. the affected equivalent array
time was computed as a function of the distance between turbines and panels, the wind direction affecting turbine yaw, and
the sun's local zenith and azimuth angle.
the affected equivalent array time was computed to give
a turbine-shading loss estimate. site-specific solar resource
data were used to estimate the solar energy loss. the turbineshading energy loss also accounts for diffuse light that is still
present during shading at any time of the day, even though
the direct component may be blocked by the turbine. this
means that turbine shading does not result in a total loss but
only a power reduction during array-affected times. due to
the electrical effect of modules in series and the large reach
of a single wind turbine blade shadow, the analysis assumed
that a shaded reflector corresponded to the presence of diffuse irradiance on only that portion of the array for the
hourly fraction represented by the model. the analysis
80

ieee power & energy magazine

further assumed that the reduction in incident irradiation on
the solar array was proportional to the energy loss expected
for turbine shading.
energy modeling was then used to calculate the impact of
the turbine shading on the solar production. Partly because
the effect of the shadows was most pronounced at times of
relatively low solar production, it was found that the shading
effect of the turbines was lower than 1% of annual production. diffuse irradiation was still present even during times of
heavy shading.
Optimal Wind and Solar Configuration

it possible to arrive at an optimal configuration for both
the turbine and solar array layouts only after 1) all site constraints have been defined and met, 2) the time-dependent
mutual interactions of the turbines and panels have been
built into the energy calculations, and 3) the wind and solar
resources have been accurately captured and modeled. the
wind and solar capacity for each phase of the project was
based on the resource assessment. an additional levelized
cost analysis was performed to determine the inverter configuration as well as the make and model of the PV panels and
wind turbines to be employed for each phase. table 1 shows
the wind and solar capacity by project phase.

Design of the BESS
Development of Energy Storage Use Cases

the first step in the Bess design process was to identify the
uses of energy storage. Based on a survey of the needs of the
system as well as the expected revenues in the near and long
term, seven applications were identified to be of value. these
were then grouped into primary and secondary applications.
the primary applications are those for which there is an immediate need for storage or a payment mechanism exists. the
secondary applications are those for which a Bess will add
value to the system but this value can only be realized based on
changes to existing regulations.
Primary Applications
✔ Penalty charge management under the deviation settlement mechanism (DSM): the first primary application of energy storage addresses financial penalty reduction in the dsM. in india, each state has a state load
dispatch center (sldC) responsible for planning the
operation of internal generation to meet the forecasted
load. the sldCs also coordinate the scheduling of interstate generators (generators designated to meet the
load of more than one state) with the help of the regional load dispatch center. any deviations from day-ahead
interstate schedules are determined on a 15-min basis,
and penalties and incentives associated with these deviations are determined according to the system condition (frequency) prevailing at that time of deviation. in
general, when the frequency is below 50.05 Hz and if
may/june 2018



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018

Contents
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