IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - 90

an interrupting time of about 12 cycles,
four cycles until the start of the arc and
followed by eight cycles of arcing. Power
systems requirements resulted in higher

interrupting capability and shorter interrupting times. Progress in shorter interrupting times resulted in a decrease from
eight to five cycles and further decreased

figure 5. A multiflow interrupter. (From Westinghouse Descriptive Bulletin
33-355, Jan. 1961.)

to today's more common three-cycle interrupting time.
In the 1920s, the operation of a circuit breaker was typically accomplished
with solenoid energy for closing and
charging the opening springs. as power
system performance improved with increased interrupting current and shorter
interrupting times, mechanisms for
operation required increased energy
and a reduced latch release time. the
higher currents also required higher
mechanism closing energy that resulted from forces caused by prestriking
currents in the oil interrupters just prior to contact touch. the area of changes and improvements in the operating
mechanism have been the source of
the closing energy, the amount of that
energy, the closing speed, the opening speed, the ability to perform multiple reclosing duties, plus reliability
and simplicity.
One of the early breaker design re quirements was the need to be fail
safe, meaning that it had to be capable
of opening in the event of loss of operating energy. this was satisfied by
stored spring energy for opening the
breakers. as the reliability of mechanisms improved with their development,
energy sources from compressed air or
hydraulics were utilized for both opening
and closing the breaker. a typical solenoid
mechanism is shown in Figure 8. these

figure 6. An interrupter grid block for a multibreak interrupter. (From Westinghouse Descriptive Bulletin 33-355, Jan. 1961.)

figure 7. A family of multibreak
interrupters (from left: 138, 230, and
345 kV). (From Westinghouse Descriptive
Bulletin 33-253, Sept. 1977.)

Relief Valve
Check Valve
Arcing Horn
Rocker Contact
Intermediate Contact
Side Operating Rod
Vents

Inlet Orifices
Lower Moving Contact
Operating Rod Spring
Oil Piston
Pump Delay Collar

Moving Contact
Cross Arm
Type MF Interrupter, Cutaway View

90

ieee power & energy magazine

may/june 2018



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Cover4
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