IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 100

Basic Operating Modes of
VSC-HVdc for Enhanced Urban
Grid Operational Flexibility

Emergency Power Support of
VSC-HVdc Interties for Urban Grid
Resiliency Enhancement

the control objective under normal system conditions is to
maintain scheduled power flow and desired terminal voltages. Power flow and terminal voltage set points are normally determined by the system operator. in energy market
operations, the regional system operator uses security constrained unit commitment (scUc) and real-time security
constrained economic dispatch (sced) programs to optimize generation resources and network power delivery subject to various network constraints and power plant ramping characteristics. direct Vsc-hVdc infeed and intracity
Vsc-hVdc interties can participate in the scUc and sced
processes as controllable network resources that enhance
grid operational flexibility. FigureĀ 6 shows the basic operating modes of Vsc-hVdc systems. the active power flow
through a Vsc-hVdc system in either direction is adjusted
following hourly or subhourly dispatch orders that can effectively enhance the optimal utilization of external power
supplies and intracity network power delivery capabilities.
when a converter is not connected to the dc line, e.g., during
circuit maintenance outages, it can operate in statcom
mode, which provides grid voltage control and dynamic reactive power support.

one critical attribute of grid resiliency is the ability to maintain stable and secure operation under emergency conditions
resulting from large or extreme disturbances. Vsc-hVdc
has fast-controllable characteristics, which can be used for
providing emergency power support that enhances power
grid reliability and resiliency. emergency power control
(ePc) functions can be automatically or manually activated
during and directly after contingencies in the power grid.
with appropriate ePc actions, power flow through the VschVdc system and reactive power support from the converters can be quickly adjusted to help stabilize the disturbed
grid and mitigate postdisturbance network overloads and
voltage violations.
the power flow of hVdc interties can be controlled to emulate a desired ac-line power flow response to network contingencies. as shown in Figure 7(b) and (c), the power flow of hVdc
interties can be ramped up quickly to its maximum rating to
mitigate the stress of postcontingency overloads on parallel ac
lines. an ac-line power flow emulation function utilizing local
measurements at the converter station was implemented at
the mackinac hVdc back-to-back installation in michigan,
United states. the emulation function modifies hVdc flows in

table 1. An expansion scenario-based comparison of conventional and advanced technology options.
Scenario

Conventional Reinforcement

HTS or VFT or ST

VSC-HVdc

Overload issues: overload of one
or two circuits during peak and
contingency

Add new circuit(s) or upgrade
existing ones with high-capacity
conductors and equipment

N/A

N/A

Voltage issues: low voltage at a
few substations during peak and
contingency

Add capacitor banks or SVC/
STATCOM at critical substations

N/A

N/A

Power flow control issues:
frequent circuit overloads
due to sources of network
power delivery

Add PSTs in critical circuit(s)

VFT and ST
(flexible power flow
control)

N/A

Multiple system issues 1):
overload of multiple circuits, low
voltages at some substations

Add new circuit(s) or upgrade
existing ones; add capacitor banks
or SVC/STATCOM

ST (active and
reactive power flow
control)

Enhanced capacity, power
flow control, voltage
support

Multiple system issues 2):
overload of multiple circuits, low
voltages at some substations,
improving power flow control

Add new circuit(s) or upgrade
existing ones; add capacitor banks
or SVC/STATCOM; add PSTs

N/A

Enhanced capacity, power
flow control, voltage
support

Multiple system issues 3):
overload of multiple circuits and
improving grid resiliency

Add new circuit(s) or upgrade
existing ones; automated network
sectionalizing and reclosing

HTS
(enhanced capacity,
fault blocking)

Enhanced capacity, power
flow control, fault blocking

Multiple system issues 4):
overload of multiple circuits,
low voltage at some substations,
improving power flow control
and grid resiliency

Add new circuit(s) or upgrade
existing ones; add SVC/STATCOM;
add PST; automated network
sectionalizing and reclosing

N/A

Enhanced capacity, power
flow control, voltage
support, fault blocking

Note: The preferred expansion options are highlighted in bold for each expansion scenario, and for some expansion scenarios,
VFT, HTS, or VSC-HVdc are not applicable due to high costs or functional limitations.
100

ieee power & energy magazine

may/june 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
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