IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 101

response to unplanned transmission
trips to avoid thermal issues and
maintain stable system operations.
controlled network fractionalization is sometimes used as
the last line of defense to protect
regional and urban power grids
from incidents of widespread outages during severe disturbances.
the fast frequency response of a
Vsc-hVdc intertie can be activated after detecting a split network condition, as shown in Figure 7(d). emergency power support
in combination with dynamic voltage support of a Vsc-hVdc intertie can mitigate the adverse impact
of disturbances and stabilize the
frequency and voltages of the split
networks. this strategy can help the
grid survive extreme events.

VSC-HVdc Solution
Readiness and
Further Technology
Development
the first commercial Vsc-hVdc
system, installed in 1999, was rated
50 mw at a voltage level of ±80 kV
with an extruded hVdc cable. multiple ±320 -kV Vsc-hVdc systems rated up to 1,000 mw and
one ±500-kV Vsc-hVdc system
have become operational worldwide in recent years for offshore
wind connections, direct infeed
into urban areas, and network interconnections. the technology is
under continuous development and
rapidly moving into higher voltages and higher power levels with
reduced losses. the new Vsc-hVdc
design concepts are based on modular products and compact structures that provide the flexibility to
accommodate different application
specifications in an aesthetic design.
there are some further technology
innovations for urban power grid
subtransmission hVdc systems:
✔ Transformerless systems:
converter transformers are
critical components of hVdc
systems, providing galvanic
separation between the ac and
may/june 2019

Q

Q

P

P

ac Bus 1

ac Bus 2
P1
Q1

P2
Q2
Terminal 1

Terminal 2
Q

Q
P

+Udc1

P

+Udc2

ac Bus 1

ac Bus 2
Q2

Q1
Terminal 1

-Udc1

-Udc2

Terminal 2

figure 6. The basic operating modes of VSC-HVdc maintain scheduled power flow
and desired terminal voltages following hourly or subhourly dispatch orders from
the system operator. Real power can flow in either direction, and voltage support is
available at both terminals.

External Power Grid

External Power Grid

Pac
Load Area
A

Pac
Load Area
B

Load Area
A

Load Area
B

Pdc
(b)

Pdc
(a)
External Power Grid

External Power Grid
X

Pac
Load Area
A

X

Load Area
B
Pdc
(c)
ac Circuit
VSC-HVdc
Intertie

Pac

X
X
X

Load Area
A

Load Area
B

Pdc
(d)
Pac: Power Flow on ac Circuit

Disturbance

Pdc: Power Flow on dc Intertie

X Circuit Outage

figure 7. The EPC of VSC-HVdc interties enabled by fast-controllable characteristics
can provide timely emergency power support between adjacent load areas and enhance urban power grid resiliency against large or extreme disturbances. (a) Normal
condition: Pdc determined by power orders from system operator, (b) ac line outage:
increased Pdc by EPC to mitigate stress of parallel ac lines, (c) emergency condition:
fast Pdc reversal by EPC to maintain stable operation of load area B, and (d) split
network: fast frequency response of HVdc intertie by EPC to stabilize frequency of
load area B.
ieee power & energy magazine

101



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 113
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 114
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 115
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 116
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 117
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 118
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 119
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 120
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050621
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030421
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010221
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com