IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 21

may/june 2019

dc faults. Different system faultclearing strategies are provided,
building on available technologies. The authors also discuss
protection algorithms in development, with some using local
measurements and others requiring communication.

✔ "Adopting Circuit Breakers for

high-Voltage dc Networks" exhibits the current state of the art
in hVdc circuit breakers. DC
circuit breakers have long been
a challenge, especially ones that
(continued on p. 114)

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PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

PANEL

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PANEL

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AutoImport
Data

100

0.08

90

80

0.07

Run
Evaluation

70
0.06

PANEL

PANEL

0.09

Component
Type

Name

Failure
Contirbution (%)

Failure Rate
(per year)

Avg Repair
Time (hrs)

Unavailability
(hrs/year)

Uptime (%)

Bus

MAIN BUS A

12.4003

0.00949048

7.289839

0.06918407

0.9999921

Bus
Bus
Bus
Breaker
Branch
Branch
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Branch
Branch

MAIN BUS B
MECH BUS A
MECH BUS B
BL-7
C-1_A
C-1_B
BL-6
BL-6_A
BL-17
BL-17_A
C-1_C
C-1

12.4003
12.4001
12.4001
5.76386
5.30718
5.30718
4.12983
4.12983
2.70288
2.70288
2.65359
2.12287

0.00949048
0.009490247
0.009490247
0.00085777
0.00282
0.00282
0.002400276
0.002400276
0.0026
0.0026
0.00141
0.001128

7.289839
7.2899071
7.2899071
37.490168
10.5
10.5
9.599442
9.599442
5.8
5.8
10.5
10.5

0.06918407
0.069183016
0.069183016
0.032157953
0.02961
0.02961
0.023041312
0.023041312
0.01508
0.01508
0.014805
0.011844

0.9999921
0.9999921
0.9999921
0.99999633
0.99999662
0.99999662
0.99999737
0.99999737
0.99999828
0.99999828
0.99999831
0.99999865

Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker

BL-10
BL-10_A
BL-8
BL-8_A

1.35144
1.35144
1.35144
1.35144

0.0013
0.0013
0.0013
0.0013

5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8

0.00754
0.00754
0.00754
0.00754

0.99999914
0.99999914
0.99999914
0.99999914

Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker

BL-9
BL-9_A
BL-14
BL-14_A
BL-15
BL-15_A
BL-7_A
BL-16

1.35144
1.35144
0.991175
0.991175
0.991175
0.991175
0.991175
0.496484

0.0013
0.0013
0.002765
0.002765
0.002765
0.002765
0.002765
0.001385

5.8
5.8
2
2
2
2
2
2

0.00754
0.00754
0.00553
0.00553
0.00553
0.00553
0.00553
0.00277

0.99999914
0.99999914
0.99999937
0.99999937
0.99999937
0.99999937
0.99999937
0.99999968

Breaker
Breaker
Breaker
Breaker

BL-16_A
BL-16_B
BL-16_C
BL-2

0.496484
0.496484
0.496484
0.0833447

0.001385
0.001385
0.001385
0.00093

2
2
2
0.5

0.00277
0.00277
0.00277
0.000465

0.99999968
0.99999968
0.99999968
0.99999995

Breaker

BL-2_A

0.0833447

0.00093

0.5

0.000465

0.99999995

60
0.05
50
0.04
40
0.03

Cumulative Percent

PANEL

Export and
View Results

Unavailability (hrs/year)

emphasizes the importance of
using electromagnetic transient
si mulation tools for systems
operating hVdc systems, especially in cases where the controls of different systems can
interact. The authors discuss
both the use of offline simulation tools for some classes of
studies and real-time hardwarein-the-loop simulations (hiLss)
by using an exact replica of the
controller applied in the converter station for other classes of
studies. The hiLs studies are
used to test controller firmware
updates, develop specifications
for new equipment, and train operators and maintenance personnel, among other tasks.
✔ "expanding Power systems in the
Republic of Korea" discusses the
types of studies required during
feasibility studies for installing
hVdc projects with complicated
interactions between converter controls and other control devices
or special protection schemes in
a power system. The authors describe a combined LCC-hVdc
and flexible alternating current
transmission systems (fACTs)
transmission project intended to
accomplish several objectives,
starting with higher-bulk powertransfer limits. The authors also
detail a study about operating
a VsC hVdc line in coordination with existing LCC hVdc facilities. The article discusses the
strengths and weaknesses of using transient stability and electromagnetic transient studies at this
stage of project development. The
authors follow up by combining
the tools in a hybrid simulator to
take advantage of the strengths of
each simulation class.
✔ "Designing for high-Voltage dc
Grid Protection" describes how the
protection of large-scale hVdc
grids will differ from protection
for ac grids. The functional requirements are presented, including technologies for clearing

30
0.02

20

0.01

10

0.00

M

ain

Bu

s

Bu

s2

Bu

s3

Bu

sS

W

BL

-1

C_

1-A

C_

1-B

BL

-6

BL

-4

0

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Explore more online and request a free demo copy at:

www.EasyPower.com/Reliability
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Power made easy.

ieee power & energy magazine

21


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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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