IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 26

examining the available conversion options illustrates
the need for evaluating the configuration selection on a
case-by-case basis. The optimal solution will be a function
of many factors, including cost, conditions of existing con-
ductors and towers, environmental factors, availability of
land for the converter stations and ground electrodes, outage
duration requirements, and operating criteria.

Converting a Double-Circuit ac Line to an HVdc Bipole

There are also different options available to convert a dou-
ble-circuit ac line to a dc line. in a hybrid configuration,
such as the one shown in Figure 6, one circuit can remain
in operation as an ac line while the other is converted into a
floating monopole or a bipole. alternatively, Figure 7 shows
the possibility of converting a double-circuit ac line into two
independent bipoles.
a single bipole can be implemented as shown in Figure 8.
This uses all of the conductors to their maximum capacity.
however, with this configuration, the hVdc system would
only be able to operate as a rigid bipole unless an arrange-
ment for a return path is included in the conversion, either
through a ground electrode or additional neutral conductors.

Insulation Requirements
There are several differences between the insulation require-
ments of ac and dc systems, which must be taken into account
for converting an ac transmission line to a dc line. in particu-
lar, the required air clearances for dc systems are lower than
for ac systems, given that the switching overvoltages for dc

ac Phase a

ac Phase a

ac Phase b

ac Phase b

ac Phase c

ac Phase c

ac Phase a

dc + Pole

ac Phase b

Emergency
Return

ac Phase c

dc - Pole

ac Phase a
or

dc + Pole

ac Phase b
ac Phase c

dc - Pole

figure 6. The converting of a double-circuit ac line to a hybrid ac-dc line.

ac Phase a

ac Phase a

dc - Pole

ac Phase b

ac Phase b

Emergency
Return

ac Phase c

ac Phase c

dc + Pole

dc - Pole
Emergency
Return
dc + Pole

figure 7. The converting of a double-circuit ac line to two independent HVdc bipoles.

ac Phase a

ac Phase a

dc + Pole

dc - Pole

ac Phase b

ac Phase b

dc + Pole

dc - Pole

ac Phase c

ac Phase c

dc + Pole

dc - Pole

figure 8. The converting of an ac double-circuit line to a full HVdc bipole.
26

ieee power & energy magazine

may/june 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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