IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 28

table 3. The loading limit following ac-to-dc line conversion.
AC Voltage (kV)

Conductor Type

Length
(mi/km)

Thermal
Rating (A)

Loading
Limit (MW)

DC Voltage
(kV)

Loading
Limit (MW)

Capacity
Increase (%)

138

1192 ACSR

16/25.8

1,500

150
(3 × SIL)

100

300

100

230

2-1351.5 ACSR

72/115.9

2,702

290
(2 × SIL)

200

1,081

273

345

2-2493 ACAR

177/284.9

3,480

560
(1.4 × SIL)

320

2,227

298

500

3-1351 ACSR

250/402.3

4,179

1,200
(1.2 × SIL)

400

3,343

179

SIL: surge impedance loading.

102
Load 1

101
Send
↓

38%
(188 MW)
38%
(188 MW)

↓

264 MW

880 MW
229.9 kV
23%
(113 MW)↓
103
Load 2

229.4 kV

↓

616 MW

Outaged Line
101%
(502 MW)

230 kV

Note:
Line flows are shown as follows: % loading (MW loading).

figure 9. Sample system 1.

Planning
Considerations

102
Load 1

101
Send
← 100%
(500 MW)
← 100%
(500 MW)

645 MW

1,500 MW

230 kV
← 100%
(500 MW)

355 MW
103
Load 2

855 MW
230 kV

Outaged Line
230 kV

Note:
Line flows are shown as follows: % loading (MW loading).

figure 10. Sample system 1 following ac-to-dc line conversion.
28

Table 3 shows the compari-
son between the maximum load-
ing of the ac line and the potential
loading of the converted dc line
based on the previous voltage
selection. For the purpose of this
comparison, the ac line loading
limit was calculated by multiply-
ing the surge impedance load-
ing by the appropriate factor
based on the line length. There
is a significant capacity increase
when the line is converted to dc for
all voltage levels. lines longer than
50 mi (80.5 km) are generally lim-
ited by voltage or stability, but the
goal of this exercise is to illustrate
the increase in thermal capacity by
the ac-to-dc conversion.

ieee power & energy magazine

This section examines system
planning considerations, with the
objective of identifying candidate
ac transmission lines that could
benefit from an ac-to-dc conver-
sion. The thermal limit of an in-
dividual circuit is not the only
consideration when identifying
the power transfer capability of a
given corridor, flow gate, or path.
The transmission capacity must
be assessed under outage condi-
tions as well.
When considering the n-1 cri-
teria, the power transfer increase
for a given path also depends on
the parallel paths. This is illus-
trated in Figure  9, which shows
may/june 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

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