IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 35

Transmission-level VSCs can address more of the
issues that previously would have prevented LCCs from
operating reliably in many conversions.
was relatively small. transmission-level vscs can address
more of the issues that previously would have prevented lccs
from operating reliably in many conversions. a project is in
progress in germany to convert a double-circuit ac line to dc
duty as part of a major initiative to improve the north-south
power flows across the country. this is probably the most ambitious and advanced of such conversion projects. in addition, the
range of converters now available at the lower end of the ratings
spectrum in the Mvdc and distribution levels means that there
is now a much larger range of potentially attractive and commercially viable conversion applications.

MVdc
there is an increasing prevalence of inverter installations at
the distribution and the lower end of transmission voltages
associated with renewable generation, including solar, wind,
and energy storage, not only on the generation side but also
on the load side. several other applications for dc have been
recognized for many years, including inner-city infeed and
remote community supply. However, few real examples of
these applications have been constructed, primarily due to
the relatively high cost of such systems because the only dc
technology available was cost-effective mainly for transmission applications.
Mvdc converters are now becoming a reality, based on
the vscs that have previously been used for distribution network and industrial applications. the availability of these
more appropriately rated converters for dc power transfer use
on distribution networks is expected to open up new opportunities for city infeed and remote community supply using
more cost-effective solutions. one such example, the angleDc project, is described later in this article. one aspect of
power networks that has seen only sporadic utilization is that
of ancillary services, and the increasing use of Mvdc inverters in microgeneration and renewables integration presents
many opportunities to build ancillary services functionality
into these distributed systems.

innovations, including the application of Mvdc transmission and the repurposing of existing ac transmission assets.
an existing 3-km, 33-kvac submarine cable in the United
Kingdom links the main island of britain to the smaller
island of anglesey. there was a need to improve power
flow to the island as well as address voltage stability on the
island. additionally, the ac cable was operating beyond its
stability limit and even at or near its thermal limit under
some critical load conditions. these were all factors in justifying the conversion of the ac cable to dc operation. this
was done by adding a converter at each end of the cable,
taking advantage of the additional conductor power transfer capacity inherent within dc power transmission.
the converter stations are being constructed at the 33-kvac
bangor substation in britain and also at the 33-kvac llanfair substation on anglesey. the cables will be operated at
27 kvdc. they will use general electric (ge) Mv7000 Mv
motor-drive units to make up the converters, which are effectively Mv vscs in a symmetrical monopole configuration.
the positive and negative conductors consist of three of the
original ac cable cores in parallel. the angle system is being
constructed primarily to address supply issues on anglesey,
but it is also viewed as a valuable pilot project to demonstrate
the feasibility of such Mvdc and repurposing solutions.

The SouthWest Link
the swl in sweden is a new Hvdc system that uses
vsc technology. the purpose of the link is to improve

SouthWest Link
DolWin3

Projects
the following project descriptions illustrate some of the
specific trends described in the previous section. all of
the projects are located in europe, as indicated on the map
in Figure 3.

Angle Link

The Angle MVdc Link
the angle Mvdc link (as illustrated in Figure 4) is an
example of a project that incorporates a number of industry
may/june 2019

figure 3. HVdc and MVdc projects in Europe.
ieee power & energy magazine

35



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
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