IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 47

the performance of the rule-based method can only be
guaranteed when a sufficient number of rules are defined.
Because the number of pMU signals collected by a pdc may
be limited, the total number of rules that can be constructed
may be insufficient to achieve the required accuracy. Several methods may be considered to address this concern.
For example, an automatic rule-discovering algorithm may
calculate a physical quantity multiple times using different
sets of signal sources, resulting in a set of redundant values
for the same quantity. abnormal values can then be identified from redundant values, and the signal sources used for
calculating the abnormal values can be further analyzed to
identify compromised pMU signals.

Mitigation Method
Suspected cyberthreats may be mitigated using a variety of
situation-dependent methods. the WaMpac controller can
use the estimated signal provided by the detection method, if
sufficient fidelity of the estimated signal is guaranteed and
latency is within acceptable bounds. if the application cannot
achieve the expected performance due to using an estimated
signal, the controller may switch to another control logic that
uses other pMU signals. For example, a Wadc controller
can adapt and use signals from redundant or standby units
or change to other frequency signals when voltage angle signals are compromised. if alternative control logic is unavailable, the controller can change to local control. Finally, the
controller should be disabled if all of the previously noted
methods are unavailable or have failed to produce a stable
operating condition.

Summary
high-voltage dc transmission is poised to add to the overall
stability and resilience of modern power systems. From efficient bulk power delivery across large geographic regions to
active power modulation for stability augmentation, hvdc
offers flexible operation through highly controllable power
electronic converters.
at the same time, the continued introduction of automation has greatly improved the reliability and efficiency of
power grids hosting the hvdc systems. although automation systems are normally secured at the it layer, gaps still
exist against vulnerabilities associated with energy delivery
systems. this is largely due to the fact that security at the
it layer is adopted from business and financial systems and
sometimes falls short of the demands of energy delivery systems to secure the vulnerabilities of the undiscerning utility.
Many attack scenarios of Scada and WaMpac systems
may temporarily force asset operators and transmission system operators to remove high-voltage ac and dc systems from
service or face the consequences of destabilizing large interconnected systems. Failing to fully address cybersecurity
concerns could impact utility operations, negatively impacting cost by causing forced downtime, and potentially destabilizing otherwise-stable interconnections.
may/june 2019

to combat this, investment in smart controls is necessary,
with an eye toward cybersecurity in all implementations.
Because functionality, protocols, and communication patterns
in these systems are well understood, detection approaches
based on application and communication white listing can be
effective. complementary detection mechanisms rooted in
physics and sound engineering principles are useful in combating these advances while effectively addressing computational
challenges to implementing these mechanisms in practice.

Acknowledgment
the views and opinions expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Government or any
agency thereof.

For Further Reading
W. litzenberger, K. Mitsch, and M. Bhuiyan, "When it's
time to upgrade: hvdc and FactS renovation in the Western power system," IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 14, no. 2,
pp. 32-41, Mar.-apr. 2016.
M. callaviik, "Grid resilience by power electronics: Use
subtransmission hvdc interties for novel emergency power
control of split networks," IEEE Power Electron. Mag., vol.
5, no. 1, pp. 54-56, 2018.
Z. haoran and r. Guohui, "analysis on the network security of the hvdc control and protection system," in Proc.
2012 IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Science and Automation
Engineering, 2012, pp. 540-543.
n. h. Macleod, n. cowton, and J. egan, "System restoration using the 'black start' capability of the 500 MW
eirgird east-west vSc hvdc interconnector," in Proc.
IET Int. Conf. Resilience of Transmission and Distribution Networks (RTDN), 2015, pp. 1-5.
r. nuqui and c. hawk, "cyber attack resilient high voltage direct current (hvdc) systems," U.S. department of energy. [online]. available: https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/
files/2017/06/f34/aBB_hvdc_FactSheet.pdf

Biographies
Dakota Roberson is with the University of idaho, Moscow,
and the center for advanced energy Studies, idaho Falls.
H. Clarisse Kim is with argonne national laboratory,
lemont, illinois.
Bo Chen is with argonne national laboratory, lemont,
illinois.
Christine Page is with the University of idaho, Moscow.
Reynaldo Nuqui is with aBB U.S. corporate research
center, raleigh, north carolina.
Alfonso Valdes is with the information trust institute,
University of illinois at Urbana-champaign.
Richard Macwan is with the information trust institute,
University of illinois at Urbana-champaign.
Brian K. Johnson is with the University of idaho,
Moscow.
p&e

ieee power & energy magazine

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https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/06/f34/ABB_HVDC_FactSheet.pdf https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/06/f34/ABB_HVDC_FactSheet.pdf

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

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