IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 50

This article describes the use of offline
and real-time EMT simulation tools
for transmission grid applications.
describes the use of offline and real-time eMT simulation tools
for transmission grid applications.
Real-Time Simulation

This type of simulation is used to mimic or produce conditions similar to those that might occur in reality for real hardware equipment, such as control and protection subsystems.
A real-time simulator generates outputs (voltages, currents,
status, and so forth) and sample inputs (such as commands,
orders, and set points) at the same speed as real power system
operations. To be able to perform hardware-in-the-loop (hil)
simulation, real-time eMT simulation needs to solve the system equations for one time step within the same time frame
as the real-world clock. To meet the real-time constraint, specialized computers and interface boards are required. some
modeling simplifications may also be required.
Offline Simulation

This approach is often preferred as a first step for dynamic simulation or when physical control and protection hardware subsystems are not available. it can run on a standard pc and has
fewer constraints in calculation time performance. The system
equations can be solved faster or slower than a real-time clock.
offline simulation offers better flexibility because simulations
can be solved with more advanced simulation methods, more
detailed equipment models, and smaller calculation time steps.
But it is not designed to be interfaced with physical devices,
such as control and protection hardware subsystems.

Offline EMT Simulation
From Planning to Operation
The réseau de Transport d'electricité (rTe), the electricity
Tso of France, uses the eMT simulation tool electromagnetic Transients program-revised Version (eMTp-rV)
to perform offline time-domain studies and frequency-scan
studies. engineers conduct offline eMT simulations at different stages of a project. The following stages are required
for studying projects that involve power electronics equipment connected to the French transmission grid.
✔ At the planning and specification stage, experts identify potential technical issues and assess solutions. This
stage uses a generic model of the new installation in
a reduced grid model. For example, a generic hVdc/
FAcTs model (including control and protection representation) may be initially used for the new installation.
engineers can then begin developing and tuning settings
based on experience and functional specifications.
50

ieee power & energy magazine

✔ At the design stage, experts evaluate solutions pro-

posed by the manufacturers. At this stage, studies can
use preliminary models provided by the manufacturers
in addition to available generic models. Manufacturer
models are usually black-boxed due to intellectual
property issues.
✔ At the testing/commissioning stage, engineers verify the
system performance with the device model to prevent
potential adverse interactions with the existing grid.
✔ when a manufacturer's offline models of power electronics devices are sufficiently accurate, as shown by
agreement with the testing/commissioning stage, offline simulation studies may be used to simulate the
final design and during the commercial operation
of the project. however, because rTe acquires replica controllers, most system studies employ real-time
simulation using hil to ensure the high accuracy and
reliability of the results.
real-time eMT simulation using control and protection
replicas is also possible for each stage, depending on the context, but it is mainly restricted to analysis during the testing/
commissioning stage and commercial operation. The following illustrates applications of offline eMT simulations.

Creation and Maintenance of Large Networks
The user determines the extent of the surrounding network to
model explicitly for eMT or frequency-domain simulations.
Grid models for eMT simulations are usually restricted to a
few substations beyond the point of interest. however, because
of the growing intricacy of transmission grids with complex
control and protection systems, studies are using larger and
more detailed network models. This is especially true for frequency-scan studies. The use of a large-scale model around
the study area improves the accuracy of the results.
however, building such large-scale models is time-consuming and prone to error and also requires accounting for the various network topologies and generation/consumption scenarios
in the network operation. This is why rTe several years ago
developed an automated interface to import network data from
its supervisory control and data acquisition tool, after identifying the need for 1) a platform that would gather network data
and 2) tools that would simulate steady-state conditions. This
platform, called CONVERGENCE, uses a common information Model (ciM) description-based interface and models the
entire rTe network from 400 to 63 kV, including the sequence
impedances of lines (positive and zero sequence), transformer
parameters (impedances and tap changer positions), generators
may/june 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
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