IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 51

(sequence impedances, voltage, and reference power settings),
loads, FAcTs parameters, and substation configurations.
conVerGence's ciM files export module is compliant
with the common Grid Model exchange standard (cGMes).
Figure 1 shows the flow diagram of conVerGence to the
eMT program interface. The entire 400- and 225-kV network
model is composed of 1,280 substations, 2,049 lines, 244 autotransformers, 12 phase-shifting transformers, 841 synchronous
machines, 2,007 loads, 115 shunt capacitors and reactors, and
seven static VAr compensators (sVcs). Figure 2 presents the
resulting circuit model for the 400-kV system.
load-flow comparisons between conVerGence and
eMTp validate this eMTp model. The results show a good
accuracy, within the specified 5% relative error bound. The
main differences result from slight imbalances on the ac
overhead line and transformer representations. The studies
conducted at rTe demonstrated acceptable computing times
for load-flow solutions, along with electromechanical transient and eMT simulations.
Major advantages to users are offered by the creation and
maintenance of large networks in a single graphical user
interface environment with the capability to perform unbalanced and multiphase load-flow solutions and to simulate
both electromechanical transients and eMTs. This provides
a unified and validated data set with a high level of accuracy;
it allows users to extract data for various applications and
perform aggregations when necessary at different locations
in a system. when network reduction is performed, depending on the study under consideration, the omitted network is
represented either by Thevenin equivalent sources or by a
frequency-dependent network equivalent.

Modeling of Power Electronics-Based
Systems and Related Controls

for the long-term maintenance of its hVdc and FAcTs
installations. establishing collaborations with universities
enables the development of models and tools suitable for
eMT-type studies.

Connection of Offshore Wind Farms
in 2012, the French government launched a call for tender for the building of six offshore wind farms in northwest
France, each around 500 Mw. For such projects, it is important to perform transient and insulation coordination studies
and address harmonic issues. Transient phenomenon simulation usually models a limited part of the network in detail,
especially when studying power electronics-dominated devices
(hVdc links, wind farms, photovoltaic systems, and so on).
however, a large-scale network model that represents a specific
network topology and load situation is also required to properly
initialize eMT time-domain studies and accurately model frequency-scan studies. The following sections illustrate examples
of both types of study.
System Harmonic Impedance
for an Offshore Wind Farm Connection

The Tso usually provides the harmonic impedances to the
point of common coupling (pcc) for wind farms seeking
connections to transmission grids. rTe determines the harmonic impedances based on the minimum and maximum
system short circuit availability obtained from conVerGence. using these two grid configurations, studies evaluate several contingencies in the area of interest. while common practices model a limited zone of the main transmission
network, it is now more practical for users to import the entire
400-kV grid for each network configuration. however, planners carefully select the 225-kV area in conVerGence
before exporting the model to eMTp. in some cases, modelers must manually enter parts of the lower-voltage-level
network (90 kV) because of the incomplete database available

several voltage source converter (Vsc)-based hVdc and
FAcTs devices are currently in the planning or construction phases, and most of them use
new technologies, such as modular
multilevel converters (MMcs). The
MMc-based hVdc link between
Database
User Options
France and spain (the inelFe
EMTP Devices Default Values
Coordinate
Configuration
or the France-spain electrical
CIM Gateway
interconnection project) is, to date,
t he highest-rated Vsc link, at
CIM/XML Parser Object Mapping
CGMES Export
COM Interface
2*1,000  Mw. Avoiding possible
CIM/XML Files
EMTP
CIM
EMTP
adverse interactions among the conC++ Model
CONVERGENCE
EQ, TP, SV, SSH
C++ Model
Circuit
trols for hVdc systems and FAcTs
Profiles
RTE Components
devices requires many eMT studies
using detailed system models.
CSV Export Additional Data CSV Parser
Machines'
Advanced expertise in the modReactances
CIM/EMTP Interface
eling and simulation of Vsc-based
systems is crucial for the planning
and delivery of numerous hVdc and figure 1. The CONVERGENCE to EMTP interface flow diagram. CSV: comma sepaFAcTs projects, including those of rated variable; EQ: equipment; TP: topology; SV: state variables; SSH: steady-state
rTe. Moreover, rTe is responsible hypothesis; COM: component object model.
may/june 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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