IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 52

in CONVERGENCE. In most cases,
reducing the entire network to a frequency equivalent is not required for
harmonic studies because the simulation time remains short for the entire
detailed circuit.
The final harmonic study reflects
the results of almost 1,000 simulations
that correspond to different network
topologies and configurations for filter
switches associated with line-commutated converters (LCCs). The overall
results are summarized as surfaces in
the RX plan-where R is the real part
of the impedance and X the imaginary
part. Figure 3 shows an example of the
results at a given substation.

figure 2. The French 400-kV grid after a CIM import in the EMTP.

Background Harmonic Analysis
for an Offshore Wind Farm
Connection

52

IEEE power & energy magazine

The first set of offshore wind farms
will connect to the 225-kV grid with
ac cables insulated with cross-linked
polyethylene. Since these cables are
38-60 km long, they inject a high
amount of reactive power. Onshore
installation of shunt reactors limits
the reactive power injected to the grid.
Consequently, steady-state voltages are
higher at the offshore delivery point
than at the onshore connection point,
which requires designing the booster
transformer to control the voltage on
the connections independently of the
grid voltage. Figure 4 shows a singleline diagram of a generic connection.
RTE's assessment of harmonic
issues for wind farm connections consists of both on-site measurements and
simulations with EMTP. Harmonic
measurements assess the level of harmonic voltages currently existing on the
grid. Measurements occur for several
weeks at substations where wind farms
are going to be connected. Then, simulations determine the amplification of
these harmonics due to the connections
of the wind farms. Since background
harmonic amplification is a steadystate phenomenon, it is satisfactory
to perform simulations only in steady
state. For such studies, frequency-scan
simulations calculate steady-state operation at each frequency.
may/june 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
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