IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 53

Real-Time Simulation as a
Complementary and Mandatory Tool

✔ Accurate studies necessitate using models that fully

reflect the installed control and protection system,
which is often extraordinarily complex. As a result,
the offline simplified power electronics model may
not be sufficiently accurate for performing network analysis.
To cope with such challenges, some utilities have created real-time simulation laboratories. Their aim is to connect controller replicas to a real-time simulator in an hil
setup. (A replica is an exact copy of the actual control and
protection system installed on-site.) Figure 5 provides an
overview of a replica setup. in 2011, rTe set up a realtime simulation laboratory called SMARTE. rTe acquires
and installs replica controllers in the real-time laboratory
for each new hV power electronics project installed on the
French network.

60
50
40
X (Ω)

planners implemented two models using eMTp to study
background harmonic amplification. First, a reference model
of the French grid without the new network development for
an offshore wind farm was created. Then, a second model
was produced that included every new grid development
and an offshore wind farm. Both cases modeled the entire
400-kV grid. since offshore wind farms are built on the
northwestern coast, the 225-kV grid was modeled, and particular attention was paid to the modeling of the local 90and 63-kV grids.
studies require detailed models of wind farms. since all
of the data for future French offshore wind farms are not
yet fully available, the wind turbine models use equivalent
circuits with a detailed collector grid model. The planners
will improve the models as additional data become available. They will update the harmonic studies during the planning phase of the project.
After the study results show that background harmonics
issues occur on-site (at the offshore or onshore connection),
the planners explore several solutions. The chosen option
usually calls for conventional passive filters at the onshore
substations. installation of filters on the offshore wind
farm platforms was initially considered, but this solution
was shown as not generally cost effective because it would
require a larger platform.

30
20
10

Rationale for Real-Time Simulation
The use of offline eMT tools is essential for performing system studies of power electronics-based equipment. For functional and dynamic performance studies of power electronics
devices, offline eMT tools (i.e., eMTp-rV or power systems
computer-aided design/electromagnetic transients including
dc) are usually sufficient to cover a wide range of phenomena.
however, several issues or limitations arise when only the
offline power electronics eMT models are used.
✔ The control and protection system settings are continuously updated on-site over the operational lifetime
of the power electronics devices. however, generally
speaking, offline models do not reflect the changes.
Therefore, over time, power electronics offline eMT
models become less accurate for performing the system studies necessary to meet reliability requirements.
✔ The lifetime of a power electronics device is usually
approximately 15-20 years. over such a long term,
eMT software versions change, and the power electronics models may not be compatible with the new
software versions.
✔ power electronics eMT offline models reflect limited
functionality to speed up the offline simulation. For
instance, simplified and/or accelerated start-up and
black-start sequences are usually present in the power
electronics offline models.
may/june 2019

0

0

5

10

15

20 25
R (Ω)

30

35

40

45

Harmonic Rank = 2

Harmonic Rank = 5

Harmonic Rank = 3

Harmonic Rank = 6

Harmonic Rank = 4

Harmonic Rank = 7

figure 3. The first ranks of the system harmonic impedance at the RTE Penly substation.

Offshore
Wind Farm

Landfall
Submarine
Cable

Booster
Transformer

RTE
Onshore
Substation

Onshore
Cable

Shunt
Reactor

figure 4. A single-line diagram of a wind farm connection.
ieee power & energy magazine

53



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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