IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 54

Replicas Overview

✔ validated controller software and firmware updates.

The replicas allow for conducting technically advanced
studies that include
✔ developing detailed new-equipment specifications
that optimize system performance
✔ investigating interaction phenomena related to hVdc
and FAcTs devices
✔ examining multiple-vendor applications
✔ considering multi-infeed schemes
✔ testing controller software and firmware updates
✔ improving offline models by means of comparisons
against simulations with replicas.
The real-time laboratory includes both hypersim and
real-time digital simulators. in addition to system studies,
the real-time simulation platform
users perform r&d activities and
software development.
Physical Equipment
Control and Protection System
At the rTe real-time laboratory, there are now controller replicas for the following:
✔ five sVcs from Alstom Grid
(for the Merlatière and domloup projects) and siemens
(for the nanterre, cheviré,
and Tourbe projects)
Replicas
Voltage/Current
✔ two hVdc Vsc links from
Measurements
Real-Time Simulator
siemens (for the inelFe
CB Status
project)
Firing Pulses
✔ one hVdc lcc link from
Ge (for the iFA2000 link)
✔ on e h Vd c Vsc st a t ion
f r o m A BB (fo r t h e B e s t
paths project)
figure 5. A power electronics replica controller overview. CB: circuit breaker.
(Images courtesy of RTE.)
✔ dc circuit breaker ABB replicas for a three-terminal dc grid
(for the Best paths project).
six additional hVdc Vsc replicas
On-Site Event Occurs
will arrive in the next two years.
eMT offline models are still essential for performing several
studies, but real-time hil simulation (including replicas)
provides additional features and is an accurate and reliable
tool for long-term studies. however, validating the simulation results can be a challenge because real-time simulation
may entail simplifications to meet the real-time constraints.
developing accurate models and validating their results can
take substantial time and effort.
in addition, the use of replicas requires
✔ sufficient staff with advanced technical skills and
knowledge of hVdc and FAcTs systems
✔ trained engineers and staff for supporting maintenance activities

Typical Event Study
Using Replicas

Retrieve On-Site Data of
Converter Station and ac Grid
Check If Event Is Inside or
Outside the Station
If Outside, Check If HVdc Has
Operated Correctly

If Inside, Check If It Is Due to HV Equipment,
Hardware, or Software Problem

* Repeat the Event on the Replica
* Perform Sensitivity Studies
* Study Mitigation Solution
Exchange With Vendors

figure 6. A typical event study flowchart.
54

ieee power & energy magazine

New Software/
Firmware Update

After incidents occur on power electronics equipment, engineers perform a risk assessment by completing several steps, shown in Figure 6.
Field data with voltage and current
measurements must be collected,
including power electronics and ac
network configurations, to analyze
whether the event originated from
the power electronics device or the
surrounding ac network. upon completion of the preliminary evaluation, there is often a need to replay
the event using replicas to determine
may/june 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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