IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 58

PHVdc (MW)

1,000

Tuning 2

800
600
400

Tuning 1

200
0

0

20

40
60
Time (s)

80

100

80

100

(a)

∆ Angle (°)

2
1.5
1
0.5

Figure 13 shows the results obtained using the inelFe
replicas connected to the real-time simulator. The plots show
the power transfer through the hVdc link and the angle difference. Two different control tunings are illustrated; the red
(tuning 1) and the blue (tuning 2) curves represent two different control gains used for tuning the ac emulation control system. The figure illustrates that the 0.155-hz oscillations can be
damped by properly tuning the hVdc controls. The results of
offline simulation (i.e., phasor domain software) validate this
behavior. importantly, the real-time simulator replicas validate
the desired response of the proposed control tuning improvements before making on-site modifications, which ensures better overall performance of the network. in addition, the realtime simulator provides a validation of the offline software
models and helps engineers identify potential solutions.
Parametric Study

0

20

40
60
Time (s)
(b)

figure 13. Interarea oscillations in the INELFE. (a) The 
damping of the oscillations by tuning the HVdc controls.
(b) Validation of the desired response of the proposed
control-tuning improvements using a real-time simulation
and replica.

Gaudiere

For some studies, parametric analysis covers a wide range
of configurations. This section illustrates the system performance in response to an ac fault at the pcc of the inelFe
link (Figure 14) using a parametric study. since several
parameters can have an impact on the hVdc performance,
Table 2 summarizes all of the variations of the simulated
parameters, which include active and reactive power set
points of the hVdc link, fault type, short circuit-level variations, and voltage sags. The tests considered a total of 1,920
different combinations of system parameter settings. To perform such a large number of tests, a parametric tool automatically generates all of the configurations.
The simulated test cases automatically record two types of
results for data processing: signal waveforms and the maximum/minimum signal value. The signal waveforms include
all relevant voltages, currents, control signals, and protection
signals that are used to analyze specific hVdc behavior for a
specific test case. The maximum/minimum signals include the

Baixas

Santa
Llogaia

HVdc
Link 2

Spain

HVdc
Link 1

France

table 2. The parameter variations.
Parameters

Values

Number of
Configurations

P/Q set points

±1,000 MW/±300 Mvar 

Four

Fault type

3ph-to-ground, 1phto-ground, ph-to-ph, 
ph-to-ph-to-ground

Four

Ramis

Vic

Bescano

Riudarenes

figure 14. An ac fault study test case in the INELFE.
58

ieee power & energy magazine

Short circuit level SCL maximum = 27 GVA Three
(SCL)
SCL mean = 9 GVA
SCL minimum = 2.5 GVA 
Voltage depth

0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 
and 70% 

Five

Fault duration

150 and 600 ms

Two

Fault instant
(relative to ac
voltage phase A)

0, 5, 12.5, and 15 ms

Four

P/Q: active power/reactive power; ph: phase.
may/june 2019



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
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