IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 63

activation of a special protection scheme (sps). however, the
loss of 6,000 mw of generation would be too severe and could
subsequently cause a blackout without grid reinforcements.
the introduction of more high-voltage ac (hVac) lines to
the system was planned to prevent catastrophic consequences
and comply with the kepCo reliability performance criteria
by which no more than two nuclear generator units (totaling
3,000 mw) may trip offline during the most critical contin-
gency without load shedding. however, the hVac transmission
expansion option was strongly opposed by the public because
of societal and environmental issues related to building new
transmission towers and lines. As a result, kepCo sought
alternative solutions for expanding the transmission capacity
to meet reliability constraints and satisfy social requirements.

Unique Capabilities
Available With HVdc
there are many reasons for devel-
oping hVdc projects that drove
may/june 2019

12,000

Land Area (km2)

700,000
Land Area
kWh/capita

600,000
500,000

10,000
8,000

400,000

6,000

300,000

4,000

200,000

2,000

100,000
-

Germany

France

United
Kingdom

Italy

Republic
of Korea

-

90,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0

12,000
Population
kWh/capita

10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000

kWh/capita

Population (Thousand)

(a)

2,000
Germany

France

United
Kingdom

Italy

Republic
of Korea

-

250,000
Generation Capacity
Peak Load

200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
-

Germany

France

United
Kingdom

Italy

Republic
of Korea

100,000
90,000
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
-

Peak Load (MW)

(b)
Generation Capacity (MW)

kepCo's grid planners developed
solutions that added 345-kV trans-
mission facilities with the under-
standing that contingencies on these
facilities would have fewer adverse
effects on the system than 765-kV
contingencies. however, study re-
sults showed that at least 24 addi-
tional 345-kV lines connecting the
east and west of the country would
be required to meet the reliability
performance criteria for contin-
gencies on the 765-kV lines. the
problems with the 345-kV system
expansion plans include a large
number of lines needed, voltage
stability concerns caused by the
long-distance connections, and an
increase in the short circuit avail-
ability to unacceptably high levels
throughout the system.
Against this backdrop, kepCo
sought alternatives that would meet
reliability requirements, maximize
the utilization of the existing sys-
tem, and reduce the need for new
transmission facility rights of way,
which would avoid adverse envi-
ronmental impact and meet social
requirements. the plan called for
lCC-hVdc transmission, static
synchronous compensators (stAt-
Coms), and thyristor-controlled
series capacitors (tCsCs).

kWh/capita

Motivations for Alternatives

consideration of the lCC-hVdc project in the republic of
korea. the proposed project connects large power plants
(including nuclear power generation) with distant load cen-
ters, keeps short circuit availability within acceptable levels,
requires minimal right of way, and uses fast power modu-
lation and other controls to minimize the adverse effects of
extremely high-impact contingencies. the lCC-hVdc proj-
ect required multiple feasibility studies to ensure that it could
provide a solution to the many complex issues presented by
the system in the republic of korea.
to meet the reliability performance standard when a
critical 765-kV line contingency occurs, the project utilizes
a sophisticated control strategy that rapidly ramps the dc
power output in combination with other controls and an sps.
hVdc power modulation is a common industry application,
especially for ramping down the hVdc system to protect its

(c)

figure 2. A comparison of (a) land area and kWh/capita, (b) population and kWh/
capita, and (c) generation capacity and peak load of different countries.
ieee power & energy magazine

63



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
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