IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 83

Appropriating the Vast Advantages
of dc Transmission Grids

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those advances include high-power electronic devices, such as thyristors and, more recently, transistors, which have enabled the development of more compact voltage source converters (VScs). the vast
majority of hVdc systems consist of a single line or cable and use one ac-dc converter at each end. the
direct connection of multiple dc lines in networks has not been possible, primarily because suitable dc
cBs have not been available. nevertheless, in the last five years, two multiterminal VSc hVdc systems
have been built in china, and others are being designed and developed.
Dc transmission grids, a substantial technological advance over point-to-point hVdc connections,
are being considered for many applications worldwide. in europe, researchers involved in several major
projects have studied the use of a cable dc grid in the north Sea for integrating large amounts of offshore
wind energy and strengthening interconnections among european union countries. in china, plans have
been made for building a four-terminal dc grid with overhead lines.
For dc grids to work, the market has to offer dc cBs, preferably from multiple vendors. these cBs
must provide acceptable performance and reliability, ensure low loss, and be available in practical
sizes at a reasonable cost. much has been learned from long experience with ac cB technologies,
which are standardized at high voltage and very high current ratings. however, they are not suitable
for dc applications, and the technologies for dc cBs will be substantially different from those for ac
cBs. the performance requirements for dc cBs in dc grids are more stringent. also, opening a dc
circuit is technically much more challenging than opening an ac circuit.
over the last five to 10 years, some major advances in hVdc cB technologies have been introduced. multiple dc cB topologies have been
demonstrated in laboratories and brought to market. more recently,
these have been installed for the first time.

Basic Performance
Requirements for dc CBs
The Role of dc CBs
the critical functions of dc cBs include
controlled opening and closing of circuits
and, in case of faults, isolating faulted
dc lines. these functions are necessary for the dc network to continue
operating while a line is under a
fault. if the faulted line were

may/june 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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