IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 87

1) the main branch consists of a breaker that is able to
sustain arcing. this is usually an ac vacuum interrupter (Vi) with an enhanced driving mechanism to
reduce opening time.
2) the current injection branches include precharged capacitors. this topology shows two branches. this design
enables two operations in a short time, which may be
essential considering the time it may take for capacitors to charge. the second branch is not needed if the
required breaker duty cycle consists of only a single
opening. Switches Vi3a and Vi3b are similar to Vi1.
the natural resonant frequency of the lc circuit can
be increased to practical values in the range of 2-3 khz,
which would reduce the required sizes of L 1 and C 1 .
the resistors R 1 are required for capacitor charging.

3) the energy absorber consists of banks of surge arresters. these arresters are based on standard surge arresters
widely used in ac systems for overvoltage protection.
4) the residual breaker, Vi2, interrupts only a small current.
this device does not need to have high opening speed.
5) the current-limiting inductor L dc reduces the rate of
the fault current rise.
the mechanical dc cB presented is also called a current
injection dc CB, because it employs precharged capacitors
C 1a and C 1b, which substantially increase the speed of
each operation.

Operating Principles
Figure 3 illustrates an interruption of a 15-ka peak dc fault
current with a mechanical dc cB on a 400-kV dc system,

18

18
Arcing Time

16

16
14

Idc

12
10

Current (kA)

Current (kA)

14

IVI1

8
6
Trip
Signal

4
2

ILC

10
8
6
2

VI2 Fully
Open

IS3

VI3 Begins
to Close

4

VI1 Begins to Open
VI1 Fully Open

0

VI3 Fully
Closed

0
0

5

10

15
Time (ms)
(a)

20

25

30

0

5

10

15
Time (ms)
(b)

20

25

30

25

30

100

600
VdcCB

80

400
Energy (MJ)

Vdc
Voltage (kV)

12

200
0

60
ESA
40

Fault Current Suppression Time

-200

20

-400
0

5

10

15
Time (ms)
(c)

20

25

30

0

0

5

10

15
Time (ms)
(d)

20

figure 3. The four graphs show the interruption of a 15-kA peak dc fault current with a mechanical dc CB on a 400-kV
dc system, assuming a dc fault at t = 0 s. (a) Contacts require about 8 ms to fully separate. (b) The fault current is fully
extinguished after an additional 20 ms. (c) The graph indicates the arrester voltage level. (d) Energy dissipation by the arresters (E SA) is about 83 MJ.
may/june 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

87



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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