IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 89

2 ms for S 1 to fully open while T2 is conducting. once S 1
is open, the current is commutated to the energy absorber by
opening T2 . as the current commutates to surge arresters,
their voltage rises to 1.5 p.u., which initiates current suppression. it takes another 5 ms for the fault current to fall to zero,
as seen in Figure 5(a). Figure 5(d) shows that the expected total
energy dissipation (in this case, E SA) equals 21 mJ.

Self-Protection
as with all high-power converters, the semiconductor valves
in hybrid dc cBs open in the event of excessive current. this
is a self-protective feature. although unlikely, a failure in
some grid protection components (relay, sensor, communication, and others) could fail to send a trip signal to the dc cB
in a dc fault situation, which would result in a rising high
dc cB current without a dc cB trip command. in practical
terms, this means that the dc cB may open on its own to
protect itself at some dc current threshold (which is much
higher than dc grid protection settings). if the dc grid protection were to fail for whatever reason, the hybrid dc cB should

Fault Current Limiting
hybrid dc cBs can also act as dc fault current limiters. By
employing the on/oFF control of the individual modules
in valve T2, the number of inserted arresters can be varied,
which can regulate current. this operating mode is limited
by the thermal capability of energy absorbers and can most
likely be achieved for only short periods of time.
this fault-limiting operating mode can be beneficial in
some applications. it can help, for example, in
1) limiting fault currents, which allows additional response
time for fault clearing by other dc cBs installed on other lines in a dc grid (in practical terms, the dc cBs or
protection systems on the other lines may have slower
response times)
2) limiting inrush currents when connecting dc lines,
which eliminates the need for preinsertion resistors on
the dc cBs.

16

16

14

14

12
10
8
6

6

2

2

0

0
2

4
6
Time (ms)
(a)

8

10

IT1

Trip Signal
S1 Begins to Open
S1 Fully Open

0

2

4
6
Time (ms)
(b)

8

10

8

10

25

VdcCB

600

20
Energy (MJ)

400
Vdc

200
0

Fault Current
Suppression Time

-200
-400

IT2

8

4

800

Voltage (kV)

10

4

0

S1 Opening
Time

12

Idc

Current (kA)

Current (kA)

open the circuit at its self-protection threshold as the last line
of defense.

0

2

4
6
Time (ms)
(c)

15
ESA

10
5

8

10

0

0

2

4
6
Time (ms)
(d)

figure 5. The four graphs show a dc fault on a 400-kV dc system interrupted by a hybrid dc CB that uses a 76-mH series inductor (L dc). (a) The fault occurs at t = 0 s, and the current peaks at 15 kA. (b) S 1 begins to open when the current is transferred to
T2 . (c) The graph indicates the arrester voltage level. (d) The expected total energy dissipation (E SA) equals 21 MJ.
may/june 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

89



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
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