IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - 97

HVdc feeders into large load areas offer low cost and
controllable power injection that bypasses heavily
loaded ac transmission corridors.

distribution networks. hts cables offer unique electrical
characteristics: negligible resistance to the flow of electricity
and high current ratings, up to 10 times those of conventional
cable circuits. hts cables also offer fault-current-limiting
capability by reverting to higher impedance conductors
upon occurrence of currents in excess of a superconducting
threshold. recently, american superconductor corporation
(amsc) and commonwealth edison made an agreement
to install the first resilient electric grid (reg) system in
chicago. the reg system uses amsc's hts technology
and will link existing electric power infrastructure within
the city of chicago; it enhances an urban grid by providing
improved load-serving capacity, resiliency, and utilization of
existing assets.
a voltage source converter (Vsc)-hVdc is a highly controllable transmission device based on Vscs using insulatedgate bipolar transistors. the converters employ either modular
multilevel converters at high power levels or converter bridges
that use high-frequency pulsewidth modulation switching patterns and lower power levels. Vsc-hVdc converters can thus
control both active and reactive power, rapidly and independently of each other. Vsc-hVdc is used to transmit electricity
in power ranges from 50 to 2,500 mw using overhead lines
or invisibly, using underground and subsea cables. it has been
used for grid interconnections, offshore links to wind farms
and oil and gas platforms, and direct infeed to city centers.
Vsc-hVdc offers flexible power transmission in both directions and ac grid support functions.

was commissioned in 2015. Xiamen island is the main load
center of Xiamen city in southeast china, and all of the
loads on the island are fed by outside power sources from
the mainland. this island infeed project secures additional
power supply to the island and has reactive power control
features that effectively support operation of the system.
Vsc-hVdc interties provide promising solutions for
urban power-grid enhancement and modernization. dc
interties could be implemented as back-to-back arrangements or point-to-point links to interconnect adjacent load
area subtransmission networks or adjacent primary distribution substations within the same load area. the addition of
dc interties increases economic power transfers and strengthens emergency power support between adjacent load areas
or critical substations. For example, some load area networks

Capacity Enhancement and
Power Flow Control
Load Area A

Dynamic Voltage
Support
Load Area B

~
~
~

VSC-HVdc for Urban Power Grid
Enhancement and Modernization
hVdc feeders into large load areas offer low cost and controllable power injection that bypasses heavily loaded ac
transmission corridors. the technology also can utilize long
underground or submarine cables, which facilitates siting
and right-of-way acquisition issues. the cross-sound cable
project is a Vsc-hVdc underwater ±150-kV, 330-mw cable
link between connecticut and long island, which is a large
load center in new York. the project improves the reliability
of the power supply in the connecticut and new england
power grids, while providing needed electricity to long
island. the cross-sound cable project had proven itself a
very valuable asset during grid restoration efforts following
the large blackout of 14 august 2003, when it was the first
transmission link to long island to go back into service.
the ±320-kV, 1,000-mw Xiamen island infeed Project
may/june 2019

~

~
~
Load Area D

Load Area C

Transmission Substation

HVac Circuit

Distribution Substation

Converter

~ Local Generation

dc Circuit

EHVac Circuit

figure 3. An HVdc intertie can increase power delivery
between adjacent load areas, provide dynamic voltage support to both load areas, and also improve meshed network
power flow controllability.
ieee power & energy magazine

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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