IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 53

10-13% wind penetration (six 65-kw wts); the system is now being tested with hydrogen storage and
additional wind power (a 162-kw electrolyzer, five
62.5-kw hydrogen engines, and three 100-kw wts)
to increase the re penetration level, with a capital
investment of c $9.7 million. some remote northern
stations have installed PV-diesel systems to supply
power to base camps in labrador (see figure 3).
✔ in the northwest territories, there have been wind
prefeasibility studies and measurements in several
rcs, as well as a slow but continuous installation of
solar PV systems across the territory; these currently
account for 180 kw of solar PV installed capacity. Additionally, the diavik diamond mine recently
installed a 9.2-mw wind farm, reducing the mine's
diesel fuel consumption by 3.8 million liters.
✔ in nunavut, significant work has been done to secure
funding and assessments for the iqaluit hydro-electric
Project, which in an initial stage will have an installed
capacity of 10-14 mw. A few solar PV installations
across the territory have been also deployed, as well
as a 65-kw wt in rankin inlet.
✔ in ontario, four wts with a total capacity of 60 kw
have been installed at Kasabonika lake first nation,
which represents an initial step toward understanding the deployment of re technologies in the remote
communities of the province (see figure 4); the University of waterloo has been collaborating with hatch
ltd. and the community to further understand the
communities' energy requirements and challenges. A
PV-diesel system made up of a solar PV installation
with a nominal power of 20 kw and a 50-kw diesel
generator has been added to the microgrid system at
wawakapewin first nation; the small diesel generator
is intended to avoid running the larger units at lowload conditions. in addition, hydro one, the utility
that serves approximately 60% of the rcs in the province, has implemented an incentive for customers to
supply electricity with re by implementing a modified feed-in-tariff program.
✔ in Quebec, two standalone wind-diesel systems have
been deployed to assess different technologies and re
penetration levels using flywheel systems: the Kangiqsualujjuaq project, with an 800-kw wt capacity and
a 200-kw flywheel, and the Îles-de-la-madeleine
project, with a 3.15-mw wt capacity and 5-mw flywheel. in addition, a 7.5-mw run-of-the-river system
has been under assessment in innavik.
✔ in the yukon, there are two wts with an installed
capacity of 810 kw in haeckel hill, near whitehorse,
as well as a community-based wind farm project of
250 kw currently developed by the Kluane first nation
and Jean-Paul Pinard.
even though most of the aforementioned projects represent relatively small installed capacities, they are helping to
july/august 2014

figure 3. A solar PV system installed at the remote Torngat
Mountains National Park base camp in Labrador. Similar
small solar PV systems have been successfully installed in
many of Canada's N&RCs. (Photo courtesy of Oliver Johnson.)

better understand the deployment challenges of re in the
north of canada and thus pave the way to larger deployments
with higher re contributions in the future.
Provinces and territories have different challenges
due to their available resources and energy requirements;
each has therefore taken a different approach to tackling
the current energy issues in its respective n&rcs. As
part of an nrcan-funded project led by hatch ltd., the
University of waterloo has been involved in researching
the energy challenges of such communities by gathering and analyzing the typically scattered energy-related
information.
the rest of this article aims to give further details about
the current status of the n&rcs across canada by classifying
the communities based on their energy generation sources
and capacities. in this context, the energy requirements and
the diesel fuel consumption required to maintain operation are described. A classification of the different types of

figure 4. Small WTs installed at Kasabonika Lake First
Nation, Ontario. Tilt-up towers are a feasible option for
installing and maintaining the WTs using locally available
resources.
ieee power & energy magazine

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover4
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