IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - 58

✔ Deployment costs: limited access is one of the main

year) only takes into account the diesel and heavy oil
required to generate electricity in communities where
the primary energy source is fuel based. this consumption has an environmental footprint of approximately 4.8 t co2 equivalent per capita for diesel-based
communities, while the canadian emission average
for electricity generation was 2.6 t co2 equivalent in
2011. this fuel dependency and its related environmental impact are even greater if one considers the
diesel required for fuel transportation and heating.
✔ Load restrictions: Peak demands in some rcs have
reached or are close to reaching rated plant capacities. this leads to communities with load restrictions, which means that no additional buildings can
be built and/or connected to the local grid until additional generation equipment is installed or other similar buildings are permanently disconnected from
the system.

Residential (C$/kWh)

2.50
2.00
1.50
1.03

1.00

0.0

0.67
0.22 0.16 0.32 0.31
0.14
0.17
0.08 0.07 0.03 0.19
0.08 0.04 0.12
BC MB NL NT NU ON QC YT
Province/Territory

General Services (C$/kWh)

Nongovernment
3.00

3.00

0.50

drivers of the high energy costs these communities
experience; the same applies to equipment deployment, operation, and maintenance in n&rcs, which
limit the economic viability of potential projects.
installation and maintenance costs from previous
and current energy projects in n&rcs are not widely
documented, but based on the information provided
by reliable sources, project costs can easily amount to
double those of an equivalent on-grid project.
✔ Operation and avoided fuel costs: A diesel-based
community with high energy costs could make an re
project economically feasible. But from a utility perspective, the potential savings are not defined by the
full energy cost, since indirect costs are not likely to
decrease; hence, only fuel-related or avoided fuel costs
should be considered in this case. depending on the
community, the utility should be able to determine a

2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00

1.00 0.91

0.50
0.0

0.39

(b)

2.64

2.50
2.00
1.50

1.31

1.00

0.88
0.53

0.50
0.19
BC

MB

0.22

NL NT NU ON
Province/Territory

QC

0.41
0.16
YT

General Services (C$/kWh)

Government
3.00

3.00

Residential (C$/kWh)

0.71

0.16
0.15
0.18 0.10 0.22 0.12
0.09 0.08
0.05 0.10
BC MB NL NT NU ON QC YT
Province/Territory

(a)

0.0

0.56

2.50

2.35

2.46

2.00
1.50
1.11

1.00

0.88

0.50
0.0

BC

MB

0.15 0.22 0.09
NL NT NU ON QC
Province/Territory

0.20
0.10
YT

(d)

(c)
Hydro-Based Maximum Rate (If Applicable)

figure 11. N&RC electricity rates by province and territory for (a) nongovernment residential, (b) nongovernment general
services, (c) government residential, and (d) government general services.
58

ieee power & energy magazine

july/august 2014



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2014 - Cover3
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