IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - 29

system, the largest in the world,
most of which are RPM and fixed
resource requirement DR. Allowing DR to participate in all markets, i.e., capacity, reserves, and
energy, significantly boosted the
growth of DR (Figure 7).

Cyberphysical Security

table 1. Electric storage resource (ESR) participation
in PJM wholesale markets.

ESR by Technology

Installed
Capacity/Qualified
Rating (MW)

Capacity

Energy

Ancillary
Services

Pumped-storage hydro (generation)

5,537

Yes

Yes

Yes

Battery (generation)

289

No

No

Yes

Flywheel (generation)

20

No

No

Yes

Cyberphysical security represents
Battery (demand-side resource)
14
Yes
No
Yes
an integrated approach to addressing vulnerabilities from malicious
attacks on the systems, infrastructure, and assets supporting of conducting cyber- and physical vulnerability assessments,
the operation of the grid and corresponding market func- called red teaming. This process enables ongoing penetrations. Potential exploits for the IT and operations technol- tion tests on systems, actively working to identify vulnerogy environments are being identified by conducting threat abilities in the system for remediation.
assessments and crisis response and recovery exercises designed to test our capabilities to address these threats. These Challenges
assessments are largely driven by the results of a comprehensive business impact analysis (BIA) in 2018, which gave Balance Between Resilience and Cost
insight into the tools and systems essential to maintaining the The desired outcome of increasing system resilience is to reduce
most critical functions. This analysis led to an emphasis on the impact of prolonged or significant outages. Doing so could
ensuring the availability of systems, even when confronted result in a lower direct economic impact because systems would
with hardware failures, software compromises, personnel be hardened against risks and not experience as much damage.
availability, and disruptions to facilities or communications. It could also reduce the indirect economic impact since the scale
The resulting efforts include an expansion of the IT applica- and duration of outages would be lessened, minimizing impacts
tions with planned redundancy and site switchover capabil- on customers and businesses that rely on electricity. We need to
ity, ensuring that the applications the BIA identified as most determine how to achieve a balance between investments and the
essential to maintaining system functionality are capable of associated resilience benefit. If the total price equals the cost of
failing over to redundant hardware at an alternate site with a disaster event plus the resilience expense, how do we achieve
minimal service disruptions.
the lowest overall expenditure? To answer this question, both the
The Joint Operational Playbook document codifies pro- event risks and societal impact of the loss of electricity during an
cesses to integrate external support personnel during a sig- extended period of time need to be considered. Resilience levels/
nificant cyber response, paired with a more robust process metrics must be quantified to produce criteria for the resilience

25,000

20,000

Price-Responsive Demand
Energy Efficiency
RPM and FRR DR
Cleared and Committed DR

(MW)

15,000
RPM Implemented
10,000

5,000

0
2005-2006 2007-2008 2009-2010 2011-2012 2013-2014 2015-2016 2017-2018 2019-2020 2021-2022
Year

figure 7. DR in PJM markets. FRR: fixed resource requirement.
july/august 2020

ieee power & energy magazine

29



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

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