IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - 39

System operators in both transmission and distribution
systems are confronted with new challenges for power
restoration in both technical and organizational dimensions.
tailor-made emergency and restoration plans with a focus on
coordination and communications-the AAS. The AAS uses
electronic data and information exchange that is designed to
reduce the need for oral communication via telephone. This
is efficient and reduces misunderstandings.
The AAS used for information exchange between the TSO
and TSO-connected DSOs is implemented in the TSO control
center and 10 TSO-connected DSO control centers. Information
is collected from TSO transformer substations within each
DSO system.
Since most renewable energy resources are connected
at the DSO level, TSO/DSO information exchange within
the control area is required for system awareness. The
exchanged information helps the APG to determine the
overall system state, which is communicated via the EAS
to the interconnected TSOs of RGCE. At the same time, the
connected DSOs receive compressed information about the
system state in the APG's control area and the neighboring
part of the RGCE.
System defense and restoration requires a detailed overview of the actual situation of the whole system, such as an
adequate overview of areas and loads that are not supplied.
Most TSOs do not have a detailed view of the DSO systems
to determine the state of the whole system. Again, the communication between TSOs and DSOs is crucial.
Information exchanges specific to restoration tasks
across TSO and DSO responsibility areas include
✔ ad hoc power/frequency balancing, including loading
of generators to their technically required minimum
load respecting load gradients
✔ synchronizing islands, which requests the TSO for a
quasi-steady-state frequency and therefore a stop in
generation ramping and load connection
✔ coordinated load reconnection impacted by the exchange of power between TSO and DSOs.
Depending on the actual system state, boundary conditions
resulting from neighboring TSOs' and underlying DSOs'
systems forecasts of renewable energy sources (RES)
are required.

Training and Tools
Training sessions for DSOs and TSOs-using tools that recognize DG as a significant factor for power restoration-are
essential for resiliency under scenarios of high DG penetration. System operators in both transmission and distribution
systems are confronted with new challenges for power restoration in both technical and organizational dimensions.
july/august 2020

It is imperative that they train together using simulation
tools, share situational awareness, and coordinate strategies
across boundaries.
The breadth of scenarios for power system restoration
with DG defines the challenges that TSOs and DSOs must
now confront. Meeting these challenges requires training with suitable tools. Simulator-based training sessions
are the most appropriate way to train operators from the
transmission, distribution, and generation facilities in new
restoration techniques. New training scenarios, to augment
traditional scenarios, are required for systems with significant amounts of DG.
Tools that are specifically designed to support system
restoration with high shares of RES need to be developed
and installed at training centers and control rooms. In the
future, tools will be developed to include simulator training
for intercompany emergency and restoration with the participation of TSOs, DSOs and multiple DER control centers.
This is shown in Figure 5.
The dynamic real-time training simulator being used
today for restoration training needs to be updated to cope
with power systems with a high penetration of DG under

Training
Intercompany Emergency and Restoration
Simulator Training-Common Training Sessions for
TSOs, DSOs, and Conventional Production
Transport

Region

* Strategy
* Communication
* Coordination
* Interaction
* Use of Tools
* Check Procedures
Future Development:
Participation of DER Control Centers

figure 5. The future of simulator training for intercompany
emergencies and restoration.
ieee power & energy magazine

39



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover3
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