IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - 40

The grid is not resilient unless it can defend itself against
disruption that can lead to system collapse, respond to that disruption,
and restore normal operations within a reasonable timeframe.
system restoration conditions. This requires simplified models of various DG generation units as well as representations
of unobservable grid areas from the control room operator's
point of view for both the TSO and DSO.
Significant amounts of DG will be reconnected during
load restoration. TSOs must be able to monitor and control
the response of generation units connected at the distribution
level during the restoration process. Otherwise there is a risk
of system collapse during the restoration process. This risk
increases with the level of DG units. In this situation the following steps are taken:
✔ the rethinking of existing restoration strategies and
developing new or advanced strategies
✔ the deployment of updated restoration strategies in operator training
✔ investigations related to the controllability of DG installations with respect to power/frequency balancing and managing the volt/var balance of the power
system
✔ the development of special operator tools dedicated to
the restoration process for situational awareness and
decision support.
An innovative restoration support tool (RST) for use by
control room operators in training and real-time system restoration would have the following features:
✔ estimation of maximum tolerable load pickup
✔ estimation of maximum tolerable DG reconnection
✔ estimation of maximum tolerable conventional unit
resynchronization
✔ contingency analysis
✔ security controlled switching
✔ flexibility assessment.
It is difficult to envisage how variable generation such as
wind and solar can be reliably incorporated into any restoration plan without the use of a tool such as the RST, due to
the need for the TSO/DSO to jointly contend with the large
number new variables. The RST would be a bridge between
the TSO and DSO, facilitating the cooperation that is critical
to reliable operations in normal times and efficient restoration in times of grid separation.
Other decision support tools for restoration have been
proposed, but they have had the capability of dealing with
variable or intermittent generation. At the TSO level, restoration plans can utilize traditional methodologies, i.e., only
use synchronous generators, but this approach will encounter problems when wind turbines and solar panels are reconnected during load restoration.
40

ieee power & energy magazine

Summary
The paradigm shift toward DG changes the TSO approach to
power system restoration. Among the key factors deserving
special attention are observability of distributed generators,
interaction between TSOs and DSOs, the command and
control structure of the network, and an evolving regulatory framework.
The grid is not resilient unless it can defend itself against
disruption that can lead to system collapse, respond to that
disruption, and restore normal operations within a reasonable timeframe. The challenge of DG to system defense and
restoration is being met though new operational practices
and effective training.

For Further Reading
"System operation emphasizing DSO/TSO interaction and
coordination," CIGRE, Paris, CIGRE JWG C2/C6.36, Brochure 733, June 2018.
M. Markovic and J. Kreienkamp, "AAS Austrian awareness system: Improving information exchange and communication between TSO and DSOs," in Proc. CIGRE symposium Dublin, 2017.
"Guideline on electricity transmission system operation: Part II - Operational security," European Network of
Transmission System Operators for Electricity, Brussels,
Belgium, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://eur-lex.europa
.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R1485
&from=EN
C. Norlander, T. Loxq, and J. Albrecht, "TSO Pan-European Co-operation and further steps and initiatives to
strengthen the Power System Security with ENTSO-E-Wide
Awareness System (EAS)," in Proc. CIGRE symposium
Lund, 2015.
W. H. Wellssow et al., "Operator training for restoration
of power systems with high shares of volatile generation," in
Proc. Cigré Session, Paris, France, Ref. C2-212, 2016.
U. G. Knight, Power Systems in Emergencies: From Contingency Planning to Crisis Management. New York: Wiley,
2001. doi: 10.1002/9781118878323.

Biographies
Carsten Roggatz is with DUtrain GmbH, Duisburg,
Germany.
Michael Power is with University College, Dublin, Ireland.
Nisheeth Singh is with Swissgrid, Aarau, Switzerland.
p&e
july/august 2020


https://www.eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R1485&from=EN https://www.eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R1485&from=EN https://www.eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R1485&from=EN

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover1
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