IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - 58

Figure 5 depicts a set of properties that describes the
resilience of ICT systems. Only if the challenge tolerance
(comprising fault tolerance, traffic tolerance, disruption tolerance, and survivability) is at a constantly high level, the
power system's resilience can be increased by functions that
are ICT dependent. Furthermore, the trustworthiness must
be monitored and ensured.
Present power systems are equipped with supervisory
control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems on the higher
voltage levels. Their design predominantly consists of proprietary physical infrastructure that monitors the availability of power equipment at specific times and provides
information used to determine the reliability of the overall
network. The access to the SCADA system is strictly limited and thus provides a high level of security. Moreover,
the performance in terms of data rate, latency, and other
QoSs is designed to meet the operators' needs. Communication lines for power system operation are mainly built
without connection to publicly available ICT systems. Full
knowledge of the topology and applied mechanisms allows
the assessment of the ICT system's fault tolerance regarding
software bugs and other randomly
distributed flaws. The increasing
relevance of distributed SCADA,
Controllability:
Remotely Controllable
energy management, and distribuSwitch/Load/Generation
tion management systems fosters
an ICT complexity that endangers
Observability:
the feasibility of fault tolerance
More Accessible Measurements
assessments. However, the survivability can be assessed for a few
Hardware Redundancy
random faults, and, in some cases,
analysts can evaluate many faults,
widespread ones, and even targeted failures. As the latency and
Hardware Minimum
bandwidth required for grid operation is one of the design principles, the traffic tolerance is not
of great importance for the analysis of SCADA systems in normal
operation. However, the available bandwidth could be misused
Layer of ICT Resilience
or depleted for a corrupted ICT
system. The disruption tolerance
Fault Tolerance
indicates the response when links
of an ICT system do not work as
Traffic Tolerance
expected, information is lost, the
number of links is reduced, and
information is transferred signifiDisruption Tolerance
cantly slower than expected.
The resilience of ICT systems
Survivability
can be assessed and designed
according to their ma nageable
Fallback
complexity and degree of seclusion for a limited number of tasks.
The trend of digitalization and

Normal Operation Supply
All Customers Supplied

figure 4. The power system resilience layers.

Challenge Example
Outdated Protocol,
Software Bug
Many Requests in
Short Time
Multiple Links Lost,
Functions Impaired
Many Links Lost, Only
Basic Functions Available
Communication Blackout

figure 5. The layers of ICT resilience.
58

ieee power & energy magazine

Hardware Measures

N -1 Security

Challenge Tolerance

N - k Security

ICT

Whatever Makes
Operators Feel at Ease

Safety Margin

power system's resilience. ICT brings transparency and flexibility into power system operation that should increase the
degree of power system resilience. However, ICT systems
have vulnerabilities that can be expressed in terms of ICT
resilience and its impact on power system resilience. In
total, the cyberphysical power system resilience needs to
be addressed.
The ICT system performance can be categorized into
four states:
1) Full QoS: all connected nodes receive the information
they require to work as expected in a timely manner
2) Reduced QoS: information and control signals arrive
late or are lost when ICT is not fully available, meaning that a share of the nodes in the network is not connected to the ICT system any more
3) No ICT: a complete failure of the communication infrastructure; all power system components must operate in a fallback mode
4) Corrupted ICT: even worse than no ICT, malicious information and control signals arrive and make power
system components act in an adverse manner.

july/august 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover3
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