IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - 84

to explain what this means, we have to
take the text at face value. We are told
that six generators were connected in
series to give 6 × 500 = 3,000 V. From
this arrangement, we have two circuits
of 1,000 V and two circuits of 500 V.
There were to be 10 such sets of circuits (see Figure 7).

* 40 generators, plus four in
reserve, rated 1,600 Vdc for
transmission to Buffalo.
Local Distribution
Three of the galleries were to have their
60 operational generators connected in
series pairs. Since we have no drawing

3,000 V
1,000 V

1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

500 V
GEN 1

N

500 V

500 V
GEN 2

500 V
GEN 3

Turbine

500 V
Ground
500 V
GEN 4

1,000 V

500 V
GEN 5

Turbine

500 V
GEN 6

Turbine

Total of 10 Sets of Independent Series Circuits
Each With Six Generators
Gallery 1

500 V
GEN 55

500 V
GEN 56

Gallery 2

500 V
GEN 57

Turbine

Gallery 3

500 V
GEN 58

500 V
GEN 59

Turbine

500 V
GEN 60

Turbine

figure 7. The local distribution circuits.

16,000 V
1,600 V
GEN 1

1,600 V
GEN 2

Turbine
Six Generators
in Series
1,600 V
GEN 9

1,600 V
GEN 10

1,600 V
GEN 21

1,600 V
GEN 22

Turbine
Six Generators
in Series
1,600 V
GEN 29

1,600 V
GEN 31

Turbine

Turbine

Gallery 4

Gallery 5

One Additional 16,000-V Circuit

figure 8. The Buffalo transmission circuits.
84

16,000 V

ieee power & energy magazine

One Additional 16,000-V Circuit

The 1,000-V circuits are for "larger
motors," and the 500-V circuits are
for "smaller motors, electric lighting, tramways, etc." The neut ra l was
con nected to earth to limit the maximum difference to 1,500 V should a
ground occur.
Buffalo Transmission
Two of the five galleries have 40 operational generators of 1,600 V with 10
generators connected in series, giving
16,000 V on each circuit. There are
four of these circuits (see Figure 8).
Plant Layout
The turbines are not fed water in any operationally logical way. In Niagara Power
volume 1, we read: "The head race-channel has five branches, one to each turbine
chamber and is furnished with ... electric
automatic balanced sluices, which ...
can be closed from the galleries below."
So we can take from this that there are
five turbine chambers. We are also told
that there are "five turbine galleries." The
terms galleries and chambers seem to be
used interchangeably. Regardless of the
terminology, however, these headrace
five branches feeding five turbine galleries make no operational sense. To remove
one headrace branch would take out all of
the local 500-V service or one half of the
Buffalo transmission.
Project B: Above-ground generators
with total output = 12,750 hp
✔ turbines

* quantity: 50 plus six held in reserve,
"in two parallel groups" of 28
* type: impulse (Girard), vertical axis
* output: 2,500 hp @ 136 r/min
driving one generator
* control: relay type governor using one flywheel per generator
✔ generators, one on each turbine
shaft
* quantity: 50 plus six held in
reserve
* rating: 2,500 hp, 136 r/min; see
discussion of ambiguity problems below
* 48 generators (plus four in reserve) rated 500 Vdc for local
distribution
july/august 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - July/August 2020 - Cover4
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