IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - 58

maPs Chile created a projection of the ghg emissions of
the electricity generation sector in Chile that it called baseline
2007. this projection takes into account available information
and economic growth expectations as of 2007. it does not, however, consider the mitigation actions implemented in the country between 2007 and 2014. the results indicate that electricity
emissions will grow from 20.8 million tons in 2006 to between
48.3 and 74.4 million tons of Co2 equivalent by 2020, depending on the economic growth scenario used (five gDP projections were created, for optimistic, pessimistic, medium-high,
medium-low, and reference scenarios). this projection also
shows that the electricity generation sector will continue to be
the main ghg emitter, followed by the industry and transport
sectors. Figure 8 shows the ghg emissions for the mediumlow gDP scenario for the seven sectors considered by maPs.
the scenario assumed an important reduction in the emissions
capture by forestry, as compared with the national inventory.
the baseline 2007 projection of the electricity generation
sector was performed using the message optimization model.
this objective function minimizes the investment cost of new
plants, operation costs, and the unserved energy cost. the problem is subject to several constraints: the energy balance between

electricity generation and projected demand, the upper and lower
bounds to appropriate limits to electricity generation, and the
maximum feasible amount of investment for each kind of technology that could occur annually, among others. the investment
in new power plants and the electricity generation by source are
the results of the optimization problem, for different hydrological
scenarios. the expansion plan with the best average performance
through all the hydrological scenarios is then selected.
the ghg emissions are projected by multiplying the primary energy consumed to produce electricity by emission factors given by the iPCC's 2006 guidelines. in Chile there are
two main independent power systems, a hydrothermal system
called the Central interconnected system (siC) and a purely
thermal system, the northern interconnected system (sing).
Figures 9 and 10 show the electricity generation by source for
the two systems for the baseline 2007 scenario.
the main source of ghg emissions in the electricity generation sector is coal, as shown in Figure 11 for the siC and
sing combined. as explained above, the baseline 2007 projection was created by considering the available information and
economic growth expectations as of 2007. it projected additions to coal generation capacity for the period 2007-2013 of

table 3. Mitigation actions in other sectors that may affect the generation sector (source: MAPS Chile).
Sectors

Mitigation Actions

Description/Implementation

Industry

Using nonconventional renewable
energy in industry

This action would involve using nonconventional renewable energy
sources in some industries to meet their own demand or inject excess
power into the distribution network.

Installing cogeneration

This action would install cogeneration plants; it envisions a potential
installed cogeneration capacity of 208 MW by 2030.

Replacing electric motors

This action would replace old electric motors with more efficient ones in
the industrial and the mining sectors.

Net billing

This action would require that 20% of Chilean households have solar PV
panels by 2030. The energy thus generated would be injected into the
distribution network.

A minimum energy performance
standard (MEPS)

A MEPS for refrigerators, lighting, washing machines, and air conditioners
would be created, resulting in lower energy consumption.

Improving the thermal regulation
for residential buildings

This action considers improving the current thermal regulation for
residential buildings every 10 years, projecting lower energy consumption.

CPR
(commercial,
public, and
residential)

Qualifying residential energy-efficient This action would certify the energy properties of residential buildings.
property for residential building
Transport

Zero- and low-emissions electric
vehicles

This action would require that a defined portion of passenger transport
demand be met by electric (10%) and hybrid vehicles (10%) by 2030, thus
increasing total electricity demand.

Modal transport shift to subway

This action considers building additional 72 km of subway lines, increasing
electricity demand.

Waste

Electricity generation in landfills

This action would install 7.2 MW of electricity generation capacity from
landfills by 2030.

Forestry

Electricity generation from forestry
biomass waste

This action would install 90 MW of biomass generation using waste from
native forestry as fuel by 2030.

Agriculture

Pump water with renewable energy This action would replace diesel and electric pumps with solar PV systems.
sources for irrigation use
Use electricity generation in dams
for irrigation in agriculture

58

ieee power & energy magazine

This action would install 480 MW of hydroelectric generators in dams built
for irrigation by 2030.

september/october 2014



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - Cover4
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