IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - 59

800 mW for the sing and 1,500 mW for the siC; these were
used to arrive at the projected increases in ghg emissions by
2013 in comparison with the 2006 inventory. What actually happened was not much different in terms of additions to capacity:
885 mW and 1,266 mW for the sing and the siC, respectively.
the national ghg emission projections between 2017
and 2020 do not increase due to the assumed incorporation
of 2,750 mW of hydroelectric installed capacity in Patagonia
in the period. in Phase 2 of the maPs Chile project, a new
baseline scenario was created, called baseline 2013. Preliminary results show that fossil-fuel-based electricity generation will continue to be the main ghg emitter.

Projected Impact of Hydro
Generation Reductions
Figure 12 shows the impact of the reduction in hydro generation on the ghg emissions trajectory in Chile, assuming a decrease of 15% in hydroelectric generation in the siC
system from 2030 onward. this energy is replaced by coal
generation, with a resulting annual average increase in ghg
emissions of 9.9 million tons of Co2 equivalent. Prices would
also rise, as higher-cost generation replaces hydropower.

Mitigation Actions for Climate Change
a mitigation action is understood as any activity that contributes directly or indirectly to the reduction of ghg

emissions. Chile has already taken some mitigation actions
in the case of the electricity generation sector; these were
not included in the baseline 2007 studies reported earlier. in
2008, Chile introduced a nonconventional renewable energy
law stating that 10% of total electricity should be produced
from nonconventional renewable energy sources, i.e., all
renewables except large hydro, by 2024. this law was modified in 2013, increasing the percentage to 20% by 2025.
more than 120 mitigation actions have been identified by
maPs Chile for the seven main ghg-emitting sectors. more
than ten mitigation actions have been formulated for the electricity generation sector. in addition, actions have been formulated in
the other sectors that also relate to the energy sector, for example,
energy efficiency initiatives. tables 2 and 3 show the mitigation
actions that directly or indirectly involve the electricity sector.

Adaptation to Climate Change
the issue of adaptation to climate change has gradually been
gaining importance worldwide. an example of adaptation is
the development of a reservoir infrastructure for more efficient
water management (for both irrigation and drinking water) in a
region experiencing less rain because of climate change. this
initiative moderates the harm from climate change but is not
related to producing fewer ghg emissions.
adaptation to climate change goes hand in hand with
deploying less vulnerable energy-related technologies. there

table 4. Potential adaptation measures in the energy sector.
Sectors

Technologies and Climate-Resilient Practices

Oil and gas exploration
and production

Reusing hydraulic fracturing fluids to reduce freshwater
requirements
Building flood walls to protect oil refineries from floods
Prepositioning portable generators to provide electricity to critical facilities during outages

Thermoelectric power
generation

Adding cooling towers to reduce water withdrawals
Adopting innovative cooling towers fitted with condensing technology that reduces the release of
water vapor
Implementing dry-cooling systems in natural-gas-fired combined-cycle power plants, instead of
recirculating cooling systems, to reduce water requirements

Renewable energy
resources

For concentrated solar power plants: employing dry-cooling systems that convert steam into water in a
closed-loop cycle
For hydropower: building new storage reservoirs, modifying spillways, and installing turbines better
suited to expected conditions (since greater water flows may require higher and more robust dams
and/or small upstream dams)
Stimulating use of solar energy in homes and buildings
Improved management of groundwater resources

Energy demand

Installing energy efficiency upgrades to help offset the energy use impacts of additional market
penetration of air conditioning
Encouraging tree planting and green roofs to reduce peak electricity
Replacing conventional roofs with cool white roofs to increase solar reflectance and thus reduce
energy demand
Improving end-use efficiency for buildings

Energy distribution

september/october 2014

Installing network automation and storm management systems

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