IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - 60

has been progress made in several countries in that direction, and current practices described by the U.s. Department
of energy and the United Kingdom, among other countries,
show that there are various climate-resilient technologies
currently available, as illustrated in table 4.
in recent years, Chile has improved the understanding of
climate change impacts in the country. as indicated before,
Chile is highly vulnerable to climate change, and the changes
that will take place may directly and indirectly influence the
country's productive activities, environment, and biodiversity.
adaptation is therefore a must and has become a central part
of climate change policy in Chile. the Climate Change strategy (2006) and the national action Plan on Climate Change
(2008-2012) defined adaptation as one of the three pillars of
climate change policy, together with mitigation and capacity
building. the national action Plan established priority sectors for adaptation, guidelines and specific actions, responsible institutions, and deadlines for compliance. the specific
actions aimed at generating knowledge about future climate
scenarios, vulnerability, and expected impacts on different
sectors, as well as adaptation options. in 2006, the first set of
climate scenarios, with a 100-year time horizon, was developed. then, in 2009, more immediate climate scenarios (with
horizons of 30 and 60 years) were developed. in 2012, additional studies were undertaken that considered the new scenarios developed by iPCC, called representative Concentration
Pathways. the latest results are consistent with the scenarios
modeled in 2006.
the instrument used to articulate nationwide, long-term
adaptation efforts in Chile is called the national adaptation
Plan. this plan will provide a general framework and guidelines for adaptation in Chile and will coordinate the adaptation
plans for nine sectors: agriculture and forestry, biodiversity,
fisheries and aquaculture, health, infrastructure, cities, tourism,
water resources, and the energy sector.
regarding the energy sector, as indicated previously, Chile
is highly dependent on the availability of water resources. Currently, the adaptation plan for the energy sector is at an early
stage of development. other than the studies estimating changes
in the hydrological cycles of some basins reported above, little
work has been done in identifying options for adaptation. as
mentioned earlier, the development of a dam infrastructure
could become an effective adaptation strategy in the face of
water scarcity. this infrastructure could also operate in synergy with a national mitigation strategy that improves hydroelectricity generation. Further, the development of a nationwide
transmission network and interconnections with other countries
with more abundant renewable resources would allow energy
exchange among the continent's different regions.
increases in energy consumption will lead to an increase
in the production of ghgs. the sector therefore requires
comprehensive measures that harmonize with mitigation
strategies and at the same time help adapt Chile to the effects
of climate change.

60

ieee power & energy magazine

Conclusions
Climate change may result in a significant reduction of hydroelectric resources, worrying countries that are heavily dependent on it like many in Central and south america, where
most electricity demand is met through hydropower generation. the impact in Chile was described, but Chile can serve
as an example for the entire region, where climate change and
ghg emissions have become a public concern.
Preliminary analyses of the evolution of ghg emissions
in the region show the great impact of electricity generation. the need for more accurate analysis and models for
various countries in the region is clear. specifically, mitigation and adaptation strategies should be carefully designed,
exploiting potential synergies. Future development of the
hydroelectric infrastructure should be analyzed, along with
other water usage patterns in the areas of irrigation, drinking water, and industrial processes. the cooptimization of
water and energy is therefore envisioned as a path to follow.
this must also be considered in the energy market design
and its revisions.

For Further Reading
iPCC. (2012). Wgii fifth assessment report (ar5).
[online]. Chap. 25, Central and south america. available:
http://bit.ly/1i61Zms
r. schaeffer, a. szklo, a. F. P. De lucena, r. soria, and
m. Chavez-rodriguez, "the vulnerable amazon: the impact of climate change on the untapped potential of hydropower systems,"  IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 11, no. 3,
pp. 22-31, may 2013.
j. a. sathaye, l. l. Dale, P. h. larsen, g. a. Fitts, K. Koy,
s. m. lewis, and a. F. P. de lucena, "rising temps, tides, and
wildfires: assessing the risk to California's energy infrastructure from projected climate change," IEEE Power Energy Mag.,
vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 32-45, may 2013.
Cepal. (2012). the economy of climate change in Chile (in
spanish). [online]. available: http://bit.ly/1i61klo
maPs Chile. (2013). referential scenarios for mitigation of climate change. Phase 1. [online]. available: http://bit.
ly/1mPP2cK9

Acknowledgments
this work was supported by maPs Chile, maPs, Fondecyt
1141082, and Conicyt/Fondap 15110019.

Biographies
Hugh Rudnick is with Pontificia Universidad Católica de
Chile, santiago, Chile.
Rodrigo Palma-Behnke is with the Universidad de
Chile, santiago, Chile.
Andrea Rudnick is with maPs, santiago, Chile.
Carlos Benavides is with the Universidad de Chile, santiago, Chile.
p&e

september/october 2014


http://www.bit.ly/1i61Zms http://www.bit.ly/1i61klo http://bit

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