IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - 69

high pressure centered in Greenland that partially blocked sandy's
path. these ingredients came
together to steer sandy westward,
into the densely populated eastern seaboard of the united states.
while moving northeast, sandy
underwent extratropical transition,
and a vast wind field emerged with
hurricane-force winds along the
small, central core of the storm
and with outer wind bands moving
into Long island and new york
city and winds nearing 90 mi/h as
far north as rhode island.
superstorm sandy also made
landfall during high tide, making it even more catastrophic. the
extreme winds combined with the
high tide created some of the greatest sea-level heights ever recorded
in many regions along the coast.
the storm surge levels measured
at the battery in lower manhattan were the highest ever recorded
at that location, nearly five feet
above any previously measured
value. this storm surge meant that
a considerable amount of electric
infrastructure near the coast was

Sandy: A Storm to Remember
Superstorm Sandy was considered a "hybrid" storm, since it pulled together a variety
of familiar meteorological ingredients, including its main tropical hurricane component, a cold front from the northwest, and a ridge of high pressure over Greenland.
Combined, these aspects of the storm
prevented it from following a path that
would traditionally have carried it out
over the Atlantic.
Sandy's impacts and damages on Long
Island were unprecedented, highlighting
the fragility of current systems relative to
extreme weather events and emphasizing the need for a risk-based approach for
evaluating what measures should be taken
to enhance resilience to uncertain events.
We need to understand the atmospheric underpinnings of how and why

FEMa/Ryan J. CouRtadE

severe storms such as Superstorm Sandy develop and evolve and then demonstrate
that our advanced weather models can simulate these dynamical processes with skill
and precision. This understanding can then be used to project how variations brought
about by climate change might influence the evolution and impacts of severe storms
in the future.
The vulnerability of the New York area and other coastal cities highlights the need for
accurate information on the timing and effects of storm surge flooding. As the mean sea
level continues to rise over, flooding problems will only be aggravated, and this analysis
shows that substations may also be subjected to higher storm tides.

figure 2. A satellite image of Superstorm Sandy before landfall on the continental United States. (Image used with permission from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.)
september/october 2014

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2014 - Cover3
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